# ch 9 test

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1) The main difficulty that occurs when students are too quick to decide what a problem asks is that they may A) activate an inappropriate schema. B) become too reflective. C) experience overgeneralization. D) rely on heuristics instead of algorithms to solve it.
Answer: A Explanation: A) Research shows that students often activate an inappropriate schema when they work too quickly on problems. Typically, a problem is categorized after reading only the first few sentences. Cognitive theory suggests that representing problems involves activating appropriate schema. Students who use the wrong schema can overlook critical information, use irrelevant information, or may even misread critical information. Changing one's interpretation of experiences could activate relevant schema. Page Ref: 229-330 Skill: Knowledge
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2) You remember that, when you lost your billfold last semester, campus security found it for you. You lost it again this morning and decided to call campus security. The method used to solve this problem is called a(n) A) heuristic search. B) means-ends analysis. C) pattern matching. D) schema-driven route.
Answer: D Explanation: D) A schema-driven route is a previously used approach to solving a problem. When a similar situation later occurs, the same schema may be activated and suggest the use of the former solution strategy (in this case, calling campus security). Page Ref: 334 Skill: Understanding
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3) The strategy of solving a crossword puzzle by doing "down" items before "across" items is an example of A) a heuristic. B) metacognition. C) patterning. D) top-down processing.
Answer: A Explanation: A) The strategy of solving a crossword puzzle by doing "down" items before "across" items is an example of a heuristic. A heuristic is a strategy that may not guarantee a correct solution but it provides a reasonable approach to problem solving that, if successful, will reduce the steps to a solution. Page Ref: 2335 Skill: Understanding
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4) A procedure that is guaranteed to accomplish a particular goal when correctly implemented is called a(n) A) algorithm. B) heuristic. C) theorem. D) working-backward strategy.
Answer: A Explanation: A) An algorithm is a step-by-step procedure that guarantees a correct answer. The limitation is that students often apply algorithms haphazardly without understanding how the correct answer was obtained. Page Ref: 335 Skill: Knowledge
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5) Which one of the following concepts is consistent with the notion of a heuristic? A) Analogical thinking B) Domain specific C) Exhaustive D) Guaranteed solution
Answer: A Explanation: A) Analogical thinking is a type of heuristic approach. Employing a general strategy previously used in a similar situation, even though analogical thinking does not guarantee a solution, provides a reasonable approach that has a good chance of working. Page Ref: 335 Skill: Knowledge
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6) Sgt. York couldn't get a shot at the enemy, who was keeping his head down in a foxhole. "Why, he's acting just like the turkeys back in Kentucky!" Sgt.York thought and yelled out his best turkey gobble. The enemy stuck up his head to see what the noise was and found a bullet. What cognition process did the sergeant use? A) Analogical thinking B) Deductive logic C) Overlearning D) The generate-test method
Answer: A Explanation: A) Analogical thinking involves solving a new problem by thinking of a strategy employed in some similar situation. In this example, Sgt. York made a turkey out of the enemy with his "gobble" cries. What worked in Kentucky worked during the battle in World War I. Page Ref: 335 Skill: Understanding
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7) Means-ends analysis in problem solving involves A) beginning at the goal and moving backwards to the unsolved initial problem. B) distance reduction and dividing a problem into subgoals. C) limiting the search for solutions having something in common with the problem. D) using analogical reasoning and heuristics.
Answer: B Explanation: B) Means-ends analysis involves identifying the final goal and then achieving distance reduction between the starting place and the goal by dividing the problem into subgoals. Each of the subgoals is then addressed systematically. Page Ref: 335 Skill: Knowledge
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8) Hernando looked at the problem and exclaimed: "Aha! This is just like when Ahab was obsessed with the great white whale, Moby Dick!" This comment is the result of A) analogical thinking. B) deductive logic. C) overlearning. D) the generate-test method.
Answer: A Explanation: A) Hernando's sudden recognition that the present problem was similar to the analogy of Ahab and Moby Dick is an example of analogical thinking. Page Ref: 335 Skill: Understanding
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9) Which one of the following students BEST illustrates the state of functional fixedness? A) Nathaniel, a student who is using a ruler for drawing lines, fails to realize that he can use its metal edge as a scraper to remove paint from his desk. B) Kathy, a student who is trying to solve a math problem, explores many different strategies until she finds a reasonable answer. C) Rebecca, a third-grade teacher, sees the second-grade achievement scores for her new class and begins to form expectancies about individuals' abilities. D) Wendell, who is used to making "d" look like "b," continues to make the same error.
Answer: A Explanation: A) The ruler can be used as a scraper as well as a tool for drawing lines. Due to functional fixedness, however, Nathaniel recognizes only the latter, more common function. The other students represent other strategies for concept learning, except for Wendell who may have a perceptual problem. Page Ref: 336 Skill: Understanding
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10) Greg ponders over a math problem. He looks, frowns, and several minutes pass as he continues to study and shuffle his papers. All at once, he smiles, picks up his pencil, and writes down the correct answer. The suddenness of Greg's solution best exemplifies A) functional fixedness. B) insight. C) problem representation. D) transfer.
Answer: B Explanation: B) Greg is demonstrating insight in his attempt to solve math problems. Insight is the sudden recognition of a solution to a problem; it is often fostered by mental restructuring and analysis of the problem. Page Ref: 340 Skill: Understanding
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11) Frank was supposed to push three wheelbarrows back to the barn, and he wasn't relishing the idea of three trips. Then in a flash he reorganized the problem. He loaded two wheelbarrows onto the third and made one trip. In doing this, he demonstrated A) flexibility. B) functional fixedness. C) insight. D) response set.
Answer: C Explanation: C) Insight is defined as the sudden reconceptualization of a problem. In this instance, Frank acquired the insight that one wheelbarrow can be used to carry the other two. Note that Frank also avoided functional fixedness by realizing that a wheelbarrow can be a cart as well as a carrier. Page Ref: 334 Skill: Understanding
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12) Gloria thinks about the solution to a problem regarding welfare in her American Problems course. She asks herself what she needs to know in order to solve the problem. She tries to think about the problem in different and, possibly, creative ways. She is then able to clarify the problem and propose a potentially useful solution. The aspect of problem solving that Gloria's strategy exemplifies is A) flexibility. B) functional fixedness. C) response set. D) transfer.
Answer: A Explanation: A) The strategy of asking herself what it is that she needs in order to solve the problem is an example of Gloria's using flexibility in helping herself solve the problem. She is using flexibility to help her think about the problem in different and perhaps creative ways. This permits her to clarify the problem and propose a potentially useful solution. Page Ref: 340 Skill: Understanding
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13) Studies of expertise have discovered that chess masters are superior to nonexpert players in A) conscious analytical thought. B) domain knowledge. C) random chess pattern recognition. D) recognition of meaningful chess patterns.
Answer: D Explanation: D) Chess masters have superior memory for meaningful chess patterns. When pieces are placed on a board randomly, the masters are no better than other people at remembering the positions of the pieces. Nor are they considered to be superior at conscious analytical thought. Page Ref: 337-338 Skill: Knowledge
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14) Creativity is thought to be associated directly with what type of thinking? A) Convergent B) Deductive reasoning C) Divergent thinking D) Intuitive
Answer: C Explanation: C) Creativity is sometimes associated with divergent thinking, which involves coming up with many different ideas or answers. In contrast, convergent thinking involves generating a particular answer. Page Ref: 339 Skill: Knowledge
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15) Michael was asked to devise as many uses for a brick as he could. After taking the assignment home to work on further, he came up with over 30 ideas, many of which were not proposed by any other student. All of Michael's ideas dealt with using a brick to break things. In what aspect of creativity proposed by Torrence is Michael lacking? A) Flexibility B) Fluency C) Incubation D) Originality
Answer: A Explanation: A) On Torrence's tests, fluency is the measure of the total number of different responses given. Flexibility is a count of the number of different categories of responses. Originality is the number of responses given by fewer than five people out of every 100 who take the test. Michael's task included fluency (many ideas on uses of a brick), and incubation (worked on the problem overnight). However, all of Michael's ideas represented only one category (using a brick to break things), so flexibility was NOT represented in Michael's task behavior. Page Ref: 340 Skill: Understanding
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16) Ms. Cricket gave a creative writing assignment on today's film. She allows 10 minutes today and 10 minutes tomorrow to work on it. What component of the creative process is she fostering? A) Automaticity B) Elaboration C) Flexibility D) Restructuring
Answer: D Explanation: D) Ms. Cricket is fostering restructuring or breaking set in order to see a problem in a new way. On the other hand, restructuring has the disadvantage of removing the student from active problem-solving. Page Ref: 240 Skill: Knowledge
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17) Which one of the following people illustrates the best example of creative behavior? A) Billy uses and established method to solve an algebraic equation on a test. B) Calita uses an encyclopedia to find the significance of the date July 4, 1776. C) Jack pours a solution of acid into a breaker of water in the chemistry lab. D) Sheryl generates a list of solutions for the recycling problem.
Answer: D Explanation: D) The best example of creativity is Sheryl's compilation of a list of solutions for the recycling problem in her school. Sheryl is trying to come up with unusual and diverse ideas, as opposed to the students in the other response alternatives who are applying knowledge in a straightforward, uncreative manner.
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18) In order to encourage student creativity, teachers are advised to A) enhance each student's reliance on authorities for response accuracy. B) promote convergent thinking and problem-solving skills. C) reinforce unusual solutions, even if the product is not perfect. D) work on increasing the speed with which students can identify solutions to problems
Answer: C Explanation: C) In order to encourage creativity, teachers are advised to reinforce unusual solutions even if the products are not perfect. In this way, they will convey to students that divergent thinking is desirable and the "correct" answers are not as important for the given task as creative thinking. Page Ref: 339-341 Skill: Knowledge
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19) Expert teachers don't have to think as hard as beginning teachers due to an ability to A) access short-term memory. B) memorize many details. C) recognize patterns in problems. D) use logical reasoning.
Answer: C Explanation: C) A critical distinction between the thinking processes used by novices and experts is that experts recognize patterns in problems. Consequently, they rely less on bottom-up (feature analysis) processing and put less strain on working memory. Page Ref: 337 Skill: Knowledge
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20) Ms. Cricket gave a creative writing assignment on today's film. She allows 10 minutes today and 10 minutes tomorrow to work on it. What component of the creative process is she fostering? A) Automaticity B) Elaboration C) Flexibility D) Restructuring
Answer: D Explanation: D) Mr. Cricket is fostering restructuring or breaking set in order to see a problem in a new way. On the other hand, restructuring has the disadvantage of removing the student from active problem solving. Page Ref: 340 Skill: Understanding
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21) You are teaching a class of students who are very inexperienced in solving problems on their own. What is the most useful strategy for the teacher to use in order to help students solve the problems for a particular unit? A) Combine the use of guidelines for problem solving with student self-monitoring. B) Provide an algorithm that specifies the steps for one of the specific problems. C) Supply general guidelines for problem solving and have students experiment through trial and error. D) Use teacher demonstrations in conjunction with partner learning.
Answer: A Explanation: A) In working with inexperienced problem solvers, it is recommended that teachers combine the use of guidelines for problem solving with student self-monitoring. Providing an algorithm specifying the steps for specific problems (response b) does not help the problem solver to transfer effective strategies to new situations. Allowing students to experiment through trial and error, even though they may have guidelines (response c), is not only very time consuming but also an ineffective way to deal with new problems. Using teacher demonstrations could be a "spoon feeding" solution, although partner learning might be helpful (response d). Woolfolk emphasized letting students do the thinking, both individually and in groups, in order that each student has a chance to practice problem solving. Page Ref: 329-332 Skill: Understanding
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23) One of the conditions for using good learning strategies is that students must A) be able to work independently. B) understand that ability is more important than effort. C) value and care about learning. D) have speed of learning.
Answer: C Explanation: C) Students who have sophisticated learning strategies, and know when to use them, also tend to value and care about learning and understanding. Their learning goals are related to the fact that they value the learning task. Page Ref: 321-322 Skill: Understanding
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22) Use of the READS method would probably have questionable benefits for A) children in early elementary school. B) encouraging a distributed practice schedule. C) high school students. D) improving recall of information from the text.
Answer: A Explanation: A) Although the READS method improves recall and encourages a distributed practice schedule, it is not recommended for children in early elementary school. Young children may lack the metacognitive skills and discipline to use it effectively. Page Ref: 326 Skill: Knowledge
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24) Cheryl gets good grades in her language class but uses incorrect grammar and punctuation in her written work in other classes. This situation suggests a problem with A) assimilation. B) encoding. C) integration. D) transfer.
Answer: D Explanation: D) Cheryl apparently has a problem with transfer, which is using previous learning to influence new learning. Specifically, her learning in language class is not being effectively applied to her usage of grammar and punctuation in writing. Page Ref: 346 Skill: Understanding
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25) Rory learned about divergent rays in physics class when he was studying the effects of lenses. Later, in his psychology class, he immediately understood the concept of "divergent thinking." What learning experience did Rory have? A) A response set B) Functional fixedness C) General transfer D) Negative transfer
Answer: C Explanation: C) Rory's learning of the concept of divergent rays in physics class has transferred to his learning of divergent thinking in psychology class. This outcome illustrates general transferapplying previous learning to new problems in other, often dissimilar, situations. Page Ref: 326 Skill: Understanding
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26) Jennifer had her stomach pumped after she ingested part of an unknown compound in chemistry class. "But at home we always taste things to find out whether they're sugar or salt," she said. Jennifer is a victim of A) negative transfer. B) improper coding. C) intuitive thinking. D) positive transfer
Answer: A Explanation: A) Transfer occurs when something learned previously influences current learning. In the present example, the transfer was negative because the prior learning interfered with Jennifer's adaptation in a new context. Page Ref: 346 Skill: Understanding
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27) Learning Latin to improve basic intelligence would possibly be inefficient due to A) general rather than specific transfer taking place. B) specific rather than general transfer taking place. C) the impracticality of disciplining mental processes. D) the irrelevance of the subject.
Answer: B Explanation: B) The transfer that occurs from learning subjects such as Latin and mathematics is probably specific, not general. The result is likely to be better performance in those areas, but not in learning other subjects. Page Ref: 348 Skill: Understanding
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28) Overlearning is the process of practicing a skill A) for too long, such that retroactive inhibition develops. B) for too long, such that proactive inhibition develops. C) past the point of mastery, such that retention is improved. D) similar to one previously learned, so that positive transfer is realized.
Answer: C Explanation: C) The definition of overlearning is that it is the process of practicing a skill beyond the point of mastery in order to facilitate retention of that skill. Page Ref: 348 Skill: Knowledge
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29) Before pulling off the bank job, Bugsy had his gang recite the steps of the operation. "Do we hafta, Bugsy?" complained Willy. "We must have been over them steps fifty times already." Bugsy is aware of the benefits of A) general transfer. B) making learning meaningful. C) modeling. D) overlearning.
Answer: D Explanation: D) By repeatedly reciting the steps of the bank operation, the robbers are being forced into overlearning. Chances of remembering the steps for doing the job correctly will increase. [In fact, the men will probably still remember them in prison later on.] Page Ref: 348 Skill: Understanding
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30) Which one of the following transfer stages is NOT one of Gary Phyte's stages in developing strategic transfer of learning? A) Acquisition phase B) Overlearning phase C) Retention phase D) Transfer phase
Answer: B Explanation: B) Transfer of learning strategies can be thought of as a tool for solving problems in a "mindful" way, according to Gary Phyte (1992, 1994). Phyte's three stages in the development of transfer are (1) acquisition phase; (2) retention phase; and (3) transfer phase. Overlearning is NOT specifically included in Phyte's transfer strategies. Page Ref: 349 Skill: Knowledge
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31) The stage of transfer for strategies in which the teacher should provide new problems that can be solved with the same strategy is the stage of A) acquisition. B) overlearning. C) retention. D) transfer.
Answer: D Explanation: D) The stage of transfer in which teachers should provide new problems that can be solved using the same strategy is the transfer stage. Page Ref: 349-350 Skill: Knowledge
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The eighth grade is preparing for its annual "School Scam Skit," in which students parody amusing school events during the year. Alonzo, the class President, discovers that the class has mistakenly sold 500 tickets for an auditorium with a seating capacity of only 200. The auditorium is not available for any other night, and the class does not have the funds available to rent a suitable room elsewhere. Numerous possible solutions may exist, but the class is feeling panicked. The class officers are meeting in order to attempt to find a solution to this problem. What type of cognitive approach is each class officer using? 32) Gwen, the class Vice President, suggested that they organize committees that would be responsible for (1) checking the calendar to see if the program could be held on two consecutive nights; (2) checking with other junior or senior high schools in the community to find out about availability of their facilities; and (3) checking on the possibility of using the high school's football stadium to construct a stage and lighting system for an outdoor program. A) Analogical thinking B) Brainstorming C) Means-end analysis D) Response set E) Working backwards