The Renaissance And Reformation

24 August 2022
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What was the Renaissance?
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The great rebirth of art, literature, and learning in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries which marked the transition from the medieval to modern periods of European history. A new way of thinking. Which lead to future reforms for the catholic church and ultamately different religions. The birth of humanism or the focus on human potential for achievements by basing civilization off of the traditional Greek and Roman.
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When did the Renaissance take place?
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The 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries after the end of the medieval era.
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Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
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The Renaissance began in Italy due to their diverse governing system of individual city rulers, their prime location to trade with more advanced civilizations, their rich economy that founded the ability to study, and their location near the heart of Roman culture which provided a firm location for humansim.
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Where did the Renaissance spread to?
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The Renaissance moved from Italy to France, the German States, Holland, and England. Their were 2 Renaissances. The Southern Renaissance that was the rebirth of Italy, and the Nothern Renaissace that was the rebirth of the rest of western Europe.
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Where did the Renaissance begin?
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The Renaissance began in Italy and partly in the Meditteranean region.
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Who were the Medici and why were they important?
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The Medici were a powerful and rich Italian merchant family.Florentine business family, patriarch was Cosimo who established family's power in 1434. Lorenzo, a descendant, would be the great patron of Renaissance artists. Started as wool merchants and became bankers. Great wealth and power. By using the family influence many artists and thinkers of the Renaissance would be sponsored or commisioned allowing their ideas to spread.
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What art style was popular during the Renaissance?
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The thinkers of the Renaissance frowned upon the art of the Medieval Era and preferred the classical art from Greece and Rome. Religious art remianed the dominant style of their period while objective art (still portraits of inaniment objects) was becoming increasingly popular.
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What were some of Leonardo Da Vinci's accomplishments?
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Leonardo Da Vinci is most well known for his painting of the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper. He also did a lot of disections and work with anatomy. He was an inventor that came up with several ideas that wouldn't be expanded upon unti hundreds of years later.
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Why is Leonardo Da Vinci considered a Renaissance man?
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Leonardo Da Vinci was a Renaissance man because he tried to question everything. Anything that could be experimentally proven was considered wrong until proven right. He was amoung the first to question the great thinkers of Greece and often rebuked their faults. His questioning often put him outside the moral ethics of the Church but he continued to do it so that he could keep learning.
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Define humanism.
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A renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
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Why was humanism important during the Renaissance?
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After the Middle Ages and the Crusades proving that Europe was falling behind intelectually, the people wanted to become the dominant civilization again. They modeled their civilization off of the classical era where they were the dominant region and put more emphasis on learning. The idea of focusing on human accomplishments rather than contributing everything to religion allowed new thinkers to develope and push the Renaissance forward.
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What did Michelangelo accomplish?
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An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Among many achievements in a life of nearly ninety years, Michelangelo sculpted the David and several versions of the PietΓ , painted the ceiling and rear wall of the Sistine Chapel, and served as one of the architects of Saint Peter's Basilica, designing its famous dome. He is considered one of the greatest artists of all time.
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Who Painted the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper?
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Leonardo Da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper.
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Define vernacular.
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The everyday speech of a particular country or region, often involving nonstandard usage. During the Renaissance not many people spoke Latin because they spoke German, Frecnh, or other common languages.
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Why was Niccolo Machiavelli signifigant to the Renaissance?
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The Renaissance was a time of great change, certainly when it came to leadership. The philosophy "if the end justifies the means" heavily influenced leaders decisions. Several leaders often listened to his ideas that it was better to be feared than loved. This changed many of the outcomes of several areas. He took a very different approach to governing then what had been seen before.
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What book did Machiavelli write that was a guide to how to gain power and keep it?
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He wrote the book, The Prince.
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He was a famous playwrite, author, and poet from England.
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William Shakespear, who wrote several plays and sonnets.
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This class of people became very wealthy during the Renaissance through the trade and sale of goods.
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The merchant class and buissnessmen became very wealthy through the trade and sale of goods that increased during the Renaissance.
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Why was Gutenberg signifigant to the Renaissance?
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Gutenberg invented the first portable printing press that allowed for a greater copying and publishing increase in the amount of books available.
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Why was the printing press important to the Renaissance?
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Suddenly it mater who wrote things and knowledge could be spread everywhere that was accepted everywhere rather than bits and pieces that may have been inaccurate. Their was an increase in books that changed the economy and how people learned in universities. It also demanded that the Church spread some of its knowledge which loosened its religious monopoly.Phamplets and other scientific discoveries could be widely communicated.
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Which Queen of England was another symbol of the Renaissance?
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Queen Elizabeth I. She promoted learning and did what she could to turn a struggling countyr back from the brink of a civil war after the difficulties with the rulers before her.
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Describe some of the major differences between the Renaissance and the Middle Ages.
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During the Middle Ages the day to day lives of people were about surviving the plague and viking attacks. During the Renaissance, people turned torwards innvoation and trying to make life better. In the Middle Ages people were very oriented about religion and were willing to accept anything and everything that counted as knowledge, even if it meant believing that everything was done by God. In the Renaissance, people are more likely to question religion and they try to experiment on their own. The plague kills off 2/3 of the population and then people relaize that they are falling behind in the grand scheme of things and start trying to rebuild.
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What was the reformation?
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A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches. After Martin Luther began spreading the movement ot reform the Catholic Church, many people followed it and created many other branches of Chirstianity.
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How did Martin Luther contribute to the reformation?
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After Martin Luther had an epiphany about God he came to believe that the indulgences being granted by the Pope held no merit in the eyes of God. He also believed that slavation came through faith in God's love and mercy rather than in the ability to do good works in his name. He publicly said that the indulgences and practices of the Catholic Church needed to be changed. After he was banned from the church many people began to believe him and that lead to the creation of Lutheranism which was one of the first Protestant faiths. He also translated the Bible into German so that people could interpret it the way that they wanted to rater than automatically assuming that the church was right. This resulted in a lot of people turning from the Catholic church.
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How did the Reformation start?
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The Reformation started when Martin Luther questioned the Chruch and eventually wound up breaking away from the Catholic Church. And in order to regain their monopoly of religious control, the Pope ordered the formation of the Council of Trent that changed some of the practices of the church and left some fo the ones that were currently in place. They also tried to wipe out the Proestants as a way of aiding the reformation.
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What were some of the 95 these?
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"Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that the Pope's indulgences a man in freed from every penalty, and saved" "Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of pardon" "Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons." "Chirstians are to be taught that buying pardons is a matter of free will and not a commandment."
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What was the Catholic Church's response to Martin Luther?
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Several followers of Catholism tried to get Martin Luther to take back what he said and when he didn't, he was removed from the Church and his teachings were forbidden. However, this was just the Pope trying to maintain power.
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What are indulgences?
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Letters of pradon signed by the Pope. He was trying to raise funds for the buildinging of a magnificant Church and he did that by selling them They granted people forgiveness for their sins in the eyes of God. People were encouraged to buy them for future sins, past sins, and even the sins of a dead relative.
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How did Protestantism spread to Switzerland?
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When Martin Luther broke with the Cathic Church Zwingli broke from the Catholic Church entirly creating Protestantism. He started his colony in Switzerland and was eventually wiped out by the Cathoics. After that, John Clavin created a theocratic Geneva in Switzerland where everything was based off of God's teachings and how to lived as a controlled Protestant.
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Describe Calvinism and its basic ideas.
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Focused on the sermon part of the service, made emphasis in salvation of man through God's grace. they encouraged the removal of statues and images from the churches, Church was to be directed by a group of mature elders rather than bishops or priests, later called presbyterian church or Reformed church. Drinking, dancing, and other sinful things in life are removed to make room for righteous behavior.
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Describe the belifes of the Anabaptists.
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A member of a radical movement of the 16th-century Reformation that viewed baptism solely as an external witness to a believer's conscious profession of faith, rejected infant baptism, and believed in the separation of church from state, in the shunning of nonbelievers, and in simplicity of life. Believed that only adults that understood the true commitment to God could accept it.
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How did the Church of England come to be?
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Henry VIII wanted a divorce from his wife Katherine of Aragon who wouldn't produce a male heir. However Katherine's brother was a good friend of the Pope's so he refused to grant the divorce. Henry then eventually got Parliment to approve the split from the Catholic Church to form form the Church of England that did give him a divorce.
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How did the rules of Mary and Elizabeth I differ from one another?
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Mary grew up Catholic and when she came to power, she was horrified that the Protestants had taken up England. She had several killed and earned the title "Bloody Mary" because so many were killed under her rule. Elizabeth I wanted to create peace in a broken nation and tried to blend Catholism with Portestantism but it failed and she had to try tot rebuild the nation.
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What was the purpose of the inquisition?
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An ecclesiastical tribunal established by Pope Gregory IX for the suppression of heresy. It was active chiefly in northern Italy and southern France, becoming notorious for the use of torture. In 1542, the papal Inquisition was reinstituted to combat Protestantism. The Pope made sure Protestants were persecuted harshly and gained control of Italy again after.
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What was the outcome of the Council of Trent?
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An assembly of high church officials summoned by the Catholic Church to clarify doctrine and address reform in response to the challenges raised by the Protestant Reformation. They changed the Catholic church and emphasized the classic teaching such as that the Catholic Church's interpretation of the Bible was the right one. Persecuted many Protestants to stop the church from splitting and keeping people from converting.
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results of catholic reformation
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1. Lack of religious tolerance 2. Religious wars (Netherlands, Germany, France) 3.Catholic: eastern & southern Europe (Italy, France, & Ireland) 4. Protestant: some in Netherlands and France, northern Europe, and England 5. Education was recognized as very important 6. decrease in Pope's power and an increase in the power of national government.