Psychology Ch. 1 example #31004

19 May 2024
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What is psychology
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Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes. Psychologists seek to observe, describe, explain, predict and modify behavior and mental processes.
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Explaining behavior
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Psychologists observe and describe behavior and mental processes to better understand them. An example would be a sports psychologist, who can help athletes improve performance by measuring athletes' heart rates and other body processes and by interviewing athletes.
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Predicting and controlling
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Psychologists predict that athletes perform best when anxiety is moderate. Psychologists help athletes control their behavior and mental processes by teaching them how to control anxiety. Psychologists focus on helping people reach their own goals.
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How do psychologists help change behavior?
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By understanding factors that influence human behavior, teaching people how to filter out distractions and keep their anxiety at tolerable levels.
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Psychology is a science
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Psychology is a social science, rooted in the natural sciences. Social sciences include history, anthropology, economics, political sciences, and sociology. Natural sciences include biology, chemistry, and physics. Some areas of psychology are closely related to the natural sciences. Both natural scientists and psychologists do scientific research to do their work
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Psychological research
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Two widely used research methods are surveys and experimentation. Surveys collect data through questions asked of a particular group. Experimentation usually involves people or animals. Some psychologists believe animal research can be applied to humans.
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Psychological theories
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Psychologists organize research findings into theories.
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Theory
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A statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and why they happen the way they do. Psychological theories discuss principals that govern behavior and mental processes.
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Psychological constructs
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Used to learn more about human behavior. These constructs talk about something we cannot see, touch, or measure directly.
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Cognitive activities
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cannot be measured; mental processes such as dreams, perceptions, thoughts, and memories
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Behavior
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Any action that people can observe or measure
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Clinical Psychology
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Most physiologists are clinical. Treat people with psychological problems such as anxiety or depression or severe psychological disorders. Deal with mental health issues, learning disabilities, geriatrics, and general health. β€’ Psychiatrists, who are medical doctors, can prescribe medication to patients. β€’ Often times, psychologists and psychiatrists work together
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Counseling psychology
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Treat people who have adjustment problems . They often work in businesses or higher educational institutes. Help people function on the highest level possible. You do not have to have a disorder to see one.
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School Psychology
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Identify and help students who have problems that interfere with learning. School psychologists use interviews, tests, and observation to help students.
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Educational psychology
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Focus on course planning and instructional methods for an entire school system rather than for an individual student. They focus on how learning is affected by psychological factors, cultural factors, economic factors, and instructional methods. Some educational psychologists help prepare standardized tests. They also study various tests to determine college success.
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Developmental psychology
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Development psychologists study changes that occur throughout a person's lifespan. These changes can be physical, emotional, cognitive, or social. Some development psychologists are especially interested in the challenges of adolescence.
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Personality psychology
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Identifies and studies human characteristic, or traits. They are interested in the origins of psychological problems and disorders. Also they are concerned with issues such as anxiety, aggression, and gender role.
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Social psychology
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Concerned with people's social behavior. They focus in external rather than internal influences.
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Experimental psychology
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Conduct research into basic processes such as functions of the nervous system, sensation and perception, learning and memory, and thinking and motivation. They study the biological and psychological reasons for cognitive behavior. Biological psychologists study the relationship between biological changes and psychological events. They are more likely to do basic research. Basic research is research that has no immediate application and is done for it's own sake.
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Which type of psychologists might treat patients with eating disorders?
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β€’ Clinical and developmental psychologists.
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β€’ Environmental psychology
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How people influence and are influenced by their physical environment.
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β€’ Comparative psychology
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The study of animal behavior across different species
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β€’ Consumer psychology
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The study of the behavior of shoppers.
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β€’ Industrial psychology
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the study of people and work
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β€’ Organizational psychology-
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the study of how people behave in organizations, such as business firms. Psychologists in this field are often trained in both industrial and organizational psychology. They are also employed by corporations to improve working conditions and increase output.
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β€’ Human factors psychology
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find the best ways to design products for people to use. They consider how the product will be used, how the product affects people, how the product looks and feels, and how the product will be engineered so it is safe, durable, and comfortable to use.
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β€’ Community psychology
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helps create social systems that promote and foster individual well-being. Social systems might include mental health centers, hospital programs, and school-based programs. They focus on promoting chance in the social environment, helping relatively powerless people, preventing threats to mental health in the social environment.
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β€’ Forensic psychology
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Work in the criminal justice system. They determine the psychological competence of defendants. They explain how psychological problems lead to criminal behavior. They work with police to help select cops, help cops cope with job stress, train cops in handling dangerous situations such as hostage, domestic violence, and suicide threats.
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β€’ Health psychology
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Study of how behavior and mental processes relate to physical health. They study how stress affects health problems and also focus on disease prevention
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β€’ Rehabilitation psychology
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- Work with people challenged by a disability. They help their patients develop strategies to compensate for their disability and live meaningful lives.
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β€’ Cross-cultural psychology
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Study behavior and mental processes under different cultural conditions. They have brought new insights to standard psychological theories. Example: They have discovered that visual perception develops differently in cultures as a result of the shapes and angles people are exposed to every day.
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History of psychology
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Psychology is as old as human history with roots going back to ancient Egypt and Greece. It is a written account of the interest in people's actions, motives, and thoughts can be traced to ancit times.
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Ancient Greece
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Socrates developed a method of learning called introspection, which means to carefully examine our own feelings and thoughts. Aristotle outlined associationism, the theory that association with past experiences is a basic principle or mental activity. Greeks used introspection (cognitive) and linked behavior and biological factors to explain behavior (associationism)
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The middle ages
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Most Europeans of this period believed that psychological problems were caused by possession of demons.
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Pioneers in psychology
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Most historians of psychology point to the year 1879 as the beginning of psychology as a modern science. IN that year, German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt established his laboratory in the city of Leipzig
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Wilhelm Wundt and structuralism
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It focused on the basic elements of consciousness. He broke down consciousness into objective sensations and subjective feelings. He believed that the human mind functioned by combining objective sensations and subjective feelings
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William James and Functionalism
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Said that Experience is like a continuous "stream of consciousness". He was one of the founders of functionalism. Functionalism is the study of how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment.
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Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis
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He developed psychoanalysis, which emphasizes unconscious motives and internal conflicts in human behavior. He developed psychoanalysis, which emphasizes unconscious motives and internal conflicts in human behavior. He developed psychodynamic thinking, which assumes that most of what exists in an individual's mind is unconscious and consists of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes. He theorized that the key to human behavior is satisfying desires.
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According to Freud, what is the key to people's behavior
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Fulfilling unconscious desires
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John Watson and Behaviorism
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Founded the school of behaviorism, which defined psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior. Holds that people can be totally conditioned by external events and that belief in individual choice is just an illusion.
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B.F. Skinner and Reinforcement
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Added to the behaviorist tradition by adding reinforcement. Showed that animals that are reinforced or rewarded, for a certain action are more likely to perform that action again. Believed people learn in the same way animals do.
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Gestalt School
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Gestalt psychology is an alternative to behaviorism and structuralism. It was developed by German psychologists Max Wertheimer, Kurt Kofka, and Wolfgang Kohler. It is based on the idea that our perceptions of objects are more than the sum of their parts. They are wholes that give shape, or meaning to the parts. Gestalt psychology rejects the structuralist idea that experience can be broken down into individual parts. It also rejects the behaviorist idea that only observable behavior is important.
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How would B.F. Skinner view introspection
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He would probably dismiss it as unscientific
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Biological perspective
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Emphasizes the influence of biology on our behavior. Biologically oriented psychologists focus on connections between the brain and behavior. They also focus on the influences of hormones and genes.
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Evolutionary perspective
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The evolutionary perspective focuses on the evolution of behavior and mental process. Evolutionary psychologists suggest that many kinds of behavior patterns are examples of adaptive behavior
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What role does biology play in our mental process?
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The nervous system makes mental processes possible
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Cognitive perspective
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Emphasizes the role that thoughts play in determining behavior. It has roots in Socrates' maxim "Know thyself". They are currently influenced by computers and computer science.
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Humanistic Perspective
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Stresses the human capacity for self-fulfillment and the importance of consciousness, self-awareness, and the capacity to make choices. According to this perspective, personal experiences are the most importance aspect of psychology.
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psychoanalytical perspective
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Stresses the influence of unconscious forces on human behavior Psychologists who follow this approach focus on conscious choice.
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How do humanistic and psychoanalytic psychologists differ in their views of what drives behavior
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Humanistic psychologists believe that self-awareness, experience, and choice allow people to choose their own behavior, whereas psychoanalytic psychologists hold that unconscious forces shape human behavior.
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Learning perspective
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Emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior . In contrast, social-learning theory suggests that people can change their environments or create new ones. Psychologists who take the learning perspective believe that behavior is learned either from direct experience or by observing other people.
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Sociocultural perspective
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Focuses on the influences of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socio-economic status on behavior and mental process.
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How can ethnicity and gender affect cultural expectations and social roles?
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Emphasizing individual differences.
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Biopsychosocial perspective
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Holds that mental processes are influenced by the interaction of biological processes, psychological dispositions, and social factors. This is a holistic approach that dates back to Greece. The modern model was developed by George Engel. It was developed in relation to the treatment of heart disease. Cultural, social, and psychological factors and genetic dispositions as well as diet, exercise, stress levels, and financial status all have a bearing on heart disease, according to Engel.
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What generalization can be made about the relation of biopsychosocial approach to other psychological perspective?
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Includes several other psychological perspectives.
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Bringing diversity into psychology
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Psychology was dominated in the past by white men. Most of their research used white male participants and tended to explore issues that we relevant primarily to white men. Many psychologists today are women and members of ethnic groups. Psychological research is more diverse than ever. The work of Kenneth Bancroft Clark exemplifies such research. He studied the effects of segregation on black children
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Biological perspective -
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Psychology that emphasizes the influence of biology on our behavior.
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Evolutionary perspective -
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Focuses on the evolution of behavior and mental process.
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Cognitive perspective -
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Emphasizes the role that thoughts play in determining behavior
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Humanistic approach-
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Stresses the human capacity for self-fulfillment and the importance of consciousness, self-awareness, and the capacity to make choices.
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Psychoanalytic perspective-
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Stresses the influence of unconscious forces on human behavior.
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Learning perspective-
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Emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior
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Social-learning theory-
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Suggests that people can change their environment or create new ones.
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Sociocultural perspective-
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Study the influences of ethnicity, gender, customs, and socio-economic status on behavior and mental process
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Introspection
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Means looking within. Also known as Plato's method of learning.
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Associationism
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- Shows how experiences often remind us of similar experiences in the past
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Structuralism
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Concerned with discovering the basic elements of consciousness.
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Functionalism
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Concerned with how mental process helps organisms adapt and process their environment
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Psychoanalysis
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Emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts in determining and understanding human behavior
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Psychodynamic thinking
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assumed that most of what exists in an individual's mind is unconscious and consists of conflicting impulses and wishes.
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Behaviorism
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The scientific study of observable behavior
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Gestalt school of psychology-
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Developed as an alternative to behaviorism and structuralism.