The passage below is from a work written and published by Galileo in 1623. Use the passage to answer the following question: "Philosophy is written in the great book of the universe which lies always open. But we must first understand the language and the character in which it is written. That language is mathematics. Its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures, without which we cannot, humanly speaking, understand the words, and wander aimlessly through a dark labyrinth."
In what sense is the passage a challenge to medieval views and methods?