Mastering Bio Ch 17

24 July 2022
4.7 (114 reviews)
28 test answers

Unlock all answers in this set

Unlock answers (24)
question
B
answer
For any given gene, what ultimately determines which DNA strand serves as the template strand? A. which of the two strands of DNA carries the RNA primer B. the base sequence of the gene's promoter C. the location along the chromosome where the double-stranded DNA unwinds D. the location of specific proteins (transcription factors) that bind to the DNA
question
A, C, D
answer
Which three statements correctly describe the processing that takes place before a mature mRNA exits the nucleus? A. Noncoding sequences called introns are spliced out by molecular complexes called spliceosomes. B. A translation stop codon is added at the 3' end of the pre-mRNA. C. A cap consisting of a modified guanine nucleotide is added to the 5' end of the pre-mRNA. D. A poly-A tail (50-250 adenine nucleotides) is added to the 3' end of the pre-mRNA. E. Coding sequences called exons are spliced out by ribosomes.
question
D
answer
What name is given to the process in which a strand of DNA is used as a template for the manufacture of a strand of pre-mRNA? A. RNA processing B. gene expression C. polypeptide formation D. transcription E. translation
question
E
answer
What name is given to the process in which the information encoded in a strand of mRNA is used to construct a protein? A. RNA processing B. gene expression C. polypeptide formation D. transcription E. translation
question
A
answer
What name is given to the process in which pre-mRNA is edited into mRNA? A. RNA processing B. gene expression C. polypeptide formation D. transcription E. translation
question
E
answer
Polypeptides are assembled from _____. A. hexoses B. glycerol C. nucleotides D. proteins E. amino acids
question
D
answer
RNA processing converts the RNA transcript into _____. A. a protein B. DNA C. a eukaryotic cell D. mRNA E. a polypeptide
question
A
answer
The flow of information in a cell proceeds in what sequence? A. from DNA to RNA to protein B. from RNA to DNA to protein C. from RNA to protein to DNA D. from protein to RNA to DNA E. from DNA to protein to RNA
question
D
answer
A codon consists of _____ bases and specifies which _____ will be inserted into the polypeptide chain. A. four ... fatty acid B. four ... amino acid C. three ... nucleotide D. three ... amino acid E. two ... nucleotide
question
D
answer
What is the process called that converts the genetic information stored in DNA to an RNA copy? A. Replication B. Translocation C. Translation D. Transcription
question
B
answer
DNA does not store the information to synthesize which of the following? A. Messenger RNA B. Organelles C. Proteins D. DNA
question
B
answer
Transcription begins at a promoter. What is a promoter? A. Part of the RNA molecule itself B. A site in DNA that recruits the RNA Polymerase C. The same as a start codon D. A site found on the RNA polymerase
question
B
answer
Which of the following statements best describes the promoter of a protein-coding gene? A. The promoter is a site found on RNA polymerase. B. The promoter is a nontranscribed region of a gene. C. The promoter is part of the RNA molecule itself. D. The promoter is a site at which only RNA polymerase will bind.
question
A
answer
What determines which base is to be added to an RNA strand during transcription? A. Base pairing between the DNA template strand and the RNA nucleotides B. The order of the chemical groups in the backbone of the RNA molecule C. The previous base D. Base pairing between the two DNA strands
question
D
answer
Which of the following terms best describes the relationship between the newly synthesized RNA molecule and the DNA template strand? A. Identical B. Permanently base-paired C. Covalently bound D. Complementary
question
B
answer
What happens to RNA polymerase II after it has completed transcription of a gene? A. It begins transcribing the next gene on the chromosome. B. It is free to bind to another promoter and begin transcription. C. It joins with another RNA polymerase to carry out transcription. D. It is degraded.
question
B
answer
The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is _____. A. 1' —> 5' B. 5' —> 3' C. 1' —> 3' D. 3' —> 5' E. 2' —> 4'
question
C
answer
Where does RNA polymerase begin transcribing a gene into mRNA? A. It looks for the AUG start codon. B. Transfer RNA acts to translate the message to RNA polymerase. C. It starts after a certain nucleotide sequence called a promoter. D. It starts at one end of the chromosome. E. The ribosome directs it to the correct portion of the DNA molecule.
question
B
answer
What is the function of RNA polymerase? A. It relies on other enzymes to unwind the double helix. B. It unwinds the double helix and adds nucleotides to a growing strand of RNA. C. It proceeds slowly along the DNA strand, requiring about a minute to add two nucleotides to the growing mRNA molecule. D. It adds nucleotides to the 5' end of the growing mRNA molecule. E. All of the above.
question
A, B, C
answer
Which of the following terms associated with transcription describe regions of nucleic acid? Select all that apply A. terminator B. promoter C. gene D. RNA polymerase
question
False
answer
True or false? A codon is a group of three bases that can specify more than one amino acid.
question
C
answer
Which of the following statements about mutations is false? A. Addition and deletion mutations disrupt the primary structure of proteins. B. A deletion mutation results in the loss of a base in the DNA sequence. C. A knock-out mutation results in a total absence of the mutated protein. D. An addition mutation results in an added base in the DNA sequence
question
D
answer
If a DNA sequence is altered from TAGCTGA to TAGTGA, what kind of mutation has occurred? A. Both addition and deletion. B. None. C. Addition. D. Deletion.
question
B
answer
Which mutation(s) would not change the remainder of the reading frame of a gene sequence that follows the mutation(s)? A. One addition mutation. B. One addition and one deletion mutation. C. One addition and two deletion mutations. D. One deletion mutation.
question
B
answer
If the sequence ATGCATGTCAATTGA were mutated such that a base were inserted after the first G and the third T were deleted, how many amino acids would be changed in the mutant protein? A. One. B. Two. C. None. D. Three.
question
B
answer
If a mutated DNA sequence produces a protein that differs in one central amino acid from the normal protein, which of the following kinds of mutations could have occurred? A. None. B. An addition mutation and a deletion mutation. C. A deletion mutation. D. An addition mutation
question
D
answer
Generally speaking, which of the following mutations would most severely affect the protein coded for by a gene? A. a base substitution at the beginning of the gene B. a base substitution at the end of the gene C. a frameshift deletion at the beginning of the gene D. a frameshift deletion at the end of the gene
question
B
answer
In eukaryotic cells, transcription cannot begin until A. the two DNA strands have completely separated and exposed the promoter. B. several transcription factors have bound to the promoter. C. the 5' caps are removed from the mRNA. D. the DNA introns are removed from the template. E. DNA nucleases have isolated the transcription unit.