India Under British Rule

25 August 2022
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The British established the East India Company to acquire
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spices and other goods found in Asia. soldiers for their armies and navies. workers for their factories and mills.
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Beginning in the 1800s, the British government appointed viceroys in India to
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represent the interests of the crown.
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The map shows southern Asia.
What does the shaded area on the map show?
The map shows southern Asia. What does the shaded area on the map show?
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the Mughal Empire in the 1700s
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The East India Company set up regional governments in India that were run by
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company governors.
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During British rule, most ordinary Indian citizens suffered because of
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famines.
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The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885 to
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lobby for equal status for Indians.
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In what year did the British raj's rule end in India?
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1947
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In the late 1800s, the All-India Muslim League was a
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political party.
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Indian soldiers who served in the East India Company's private army were called
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sepoys.
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What was one positive result of the British raj's rule in India?
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India had the fourth-largest railway network in the world by 1900.
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How did British imperialism affect the people of India?
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Great Britian colonized India and so India existed for the betterment of Great Britian.
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East India Company: Private company in Great Britain that established trade with India.
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• Trade Goods included gold, silk, and cotton, and spices, such as pepper and cinnamon. • Created in 1600 to fulfill three main goals. 1. Establish trading posts in India. 2. Bring those trade goods back to Britain, to make a profit for investors. 3. Spread British influence and power.
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The dominant power at time the East India Company was established was the Mughal Empire, which were Muslim rulers that controlled India.
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• The Mughal Empire had united Hindus and Muslims into one state. • The Mughal Empire allowed the East India Company to establish trading posts in key coastal cities, like Bombay and Calcutta. • The power of the Mughal Empire began to decline in the 1700's.
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As The Mughal Empire influence declined, the power of the East India Company continued to grow.
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• Expanded its trading operations across the region, not just in coastal cities. • They created regional governments with company Governor's in charge. • The East India Company used its private army to force Mughal rulers to accept company demands. • They also collected taxes from Indians.
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Company Rule: The East India Company, began acting more as a government rather than a company, so much so that by the 1750's, company rule had begun in India, which had huge impacts on India's economy.
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• India produced cotton and other raw materials that were perhaps grown in India. But those raw materials were sent to British factories, where they were made into finished products, like clothing, and those finished products were then sent to India in return. • Great Britain did not want Indian companies and Indian manufacturing competing with Great Britain. So manufacturing in India was restricted, so much so that Indian manufacturers were not allowed to compete with British manufacturing companies and cheap British textiles drove India's industry out of business.
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How did British imperialism affect the people of India?
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The British government changed the way that India was ruled.
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Sepoys: An army of Indian soldiers who helped the East India Company expand its rule during the 1800's.
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• Effective fighting force because, although small in number, they were paid better by the East India Company than they would have been by India.
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Robert Clive, a governor in India, wrote this letter to the prime minister in 1759, talking about them, where he says "a small force from home will be sufficient to divide and conquer India as we are always sure to have any number we please of Indian troops who, being both much better paid and treated by us than by their own country's powers, will very readily enter our service."
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• Some sepoys felt that their traditions were not respected, that the British threatened many Indian practices and many Indians had lost land and wealth, causing an anti-British undercurrent to begin.
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Rifle Cartridge Crisis: In India, there are two main religious groups, Muslims and Hindus. And both of them have very strict dietary considerations, where many Muslims cannot come in contact with anything made of pork or of a pig, and many Hindus cannot have anything made of beef or of a cow. A rumor went around that rifle cartridges were being greased by animal fat made of either pig or of beef making it impossible for many to have contact with the rifles, leading them to believe their religious beliefs were being ignored.
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Which led to a Sepoy Rebellion throughout the region, lasting more than 1 year and killing thousands.
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British raj: After the Sepoy Rebellion, the East India Company lost its administrative powers, its territories, as well as its armed forces. Replacing East India Company, the British government took control of India and established the British raj.
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• Raj is a Hindu word meaning rule. • The British Empire also established a viceroy, which was appointed to represent the interests of the crown. • Some areas of India such as Punjab and Bengal were directly controlled by the British Empire. • Other areas called Princely states, such as Baluchistan, Kashmir, and Bhutan. were ruled by an Indian prince. However, that prince had sworn allegiance back to the British Empire.
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India was extremely important to the British Empire.
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• In 1857, Queen Victoria, who you can see on the right, was named empress of India. • India was called the "jewel in the crown."
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Compare the East India Company and the British raj: East India Company:
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• Bribed local leaders • Used its army to enforce its decisions. • Reported to investors • They were concerned with making a profit.
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Compare the East India Company and the British raj: British raj: 1858-1947 (1947 India gained it's Independence from Great Britain)
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• They used a civil service system to rule India. • They reported to Parliament and the Crown. • They were also concerned with making a profit, like the East India Company. • They were also interested in governing fairly and making improvements.
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Improvements made by British Rulers in India:
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o road, railroad, and communication infrastructure. o constructed thousands of schools and universities o modernized the legal system o improved sanitation and public health.
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Many Indians objected to some British policies, which led to anti-British feelings growing among Indians.
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• British civil servants were segregated from other Indians, meaning they were kept apart • British employees were paid far more than their Indian counterparts for doing similar jobs • Few Indians held leadership positions. Most Indians could never become officers. Section 12
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Nationalism:
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nationalism is a strong sense of national identity that puts one's own culture, or interests, first.
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Indian Nationalism: Indians began to demand a say in government. Life for ordinary Indians was quite a struggle, which led to some Indians to develop feelings of nationalism
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• poverty. • lacked equal job opportunities • lacked access to education • they work as subsistence farmers. Subsistence means you grow just enough food for yourself and your family to eat. • many Indians suffered terrible famines
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Indian National Congress (INC) was formed in 1885 to be a political party that:
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• lobbied for equal status for Indians • debated reforms for the future of India.
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Dadabhai Naoroji:
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• Co-founder of the Indian National Congress • first Indian elected to British parliament. • He wrote books and speeches protesting the way Britain treated India. • He supported home rule, where Indians would run their own affairs as part of the British Empire.
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Dadabhai Naoroji speech called "The Knife of Sugar." He says, "The British rule has been-- morally, a great blessing; politically, peace and order on one hand, blunders on the other; materially, impoverishment, relieved as far as the railroad and other loans go. The Indian natives call the British system 'Sakar ki Churi,' the knife of sugar. That is to say, there is no oppression, it is all smooth and sweet, but it is the knife, notwithstanding."
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Pros of British Rule in India- "sweet" • morally, a great blessing, • politically, in peace • railroad, infrastructure • loans- lots of money brought in to Inidia Cons of British Rule in India- "Knife" • Blunders: the Sepoy rebellion. • impoverishment.
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All-India Muslim League Muslims formed their own political party with two main goals.
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• to work to protect the rights of Muslims. • to promote self-government for India. • later, the Muslim League would push for the establishment of a separate Muslim state..