Egyptian history is one of the oldest and most fascinating histories in the world. It dates back to the Predynastic period in 3100 BC when Upper and Lower Egypt were unified into one kingdom. Throughout its long history, Egypt was able to become a successful power. Throughout the years, it was conquered by many different civilizations including Greeks, Romans, Arabians, Turks, and British. In modern times Egypt is known for being a major player in Middle East politics and culture. The Ancient Egyptians established one of the first great civilizations in world history with their impressive architecture, art and writing systems. Some of the most famous sites from this time period include Giza Pyramids, Karnak Temple Complex and Valley of Kings. They also developed an advanced system of government which included a powerful Pharaoh as its head ruler along with priests that served as advisors. They had a complex religion based on polytheism which believed that gods ruled over every aspect of life from fertility to death. During this period many advances were made in mathematics, engineering and medicine such as invention of paper and papyrus writing systems which allowed them to record their laws and beliefs on stone tablets or scrolls. They also invented new tools like sickles for harvesting crops as well as irrigation systems for farming purposes allowing them to build cities near rivers or lakes so they could have access to water sources necessary for sustaining life such as food production or bathing areas for hygiene purposes . In 332 BC Alexander The Great conquered Egypt during his campaign against Persia where he eventually established Alexandria an important city in terms of trading goods between Europe & Asia Minor & spread Greek culture throughout region although local customs still remained largely intact due mainly because Alexander accepted existing religions & customs while introducing reforms where needed like taxation policies etc… After his death Ptolemaic dynasty took control over kingdom & eventually Rome under Julius Caesar annexed it into Empire after defeating Cleopatra VII (last Egyptian Queen) at Battle Of Actium (31BC). Following centuries saw various foreign powers controlling region until 19th century when British finally managed take hold over entire country through Suez Canal project (which allowed them easy access India). Modern day Egypt has seen numerous changes since then: independence from UK 1952 followed by social reforms introduced Gamal Abdel Nasser’s regime; establishment Arab Republic 1971; peace treaty with Israel 1979; economic collapse 1980s leading Mubarak taking power from 1981-2011 when current President el-Sisi came office following Arab Spring uprising 2011/12 . Despite all these ups downs country remains strong vibrant place thanks its rich cultural heritage unique mix ancient traditions modernity making it popular tourist destination today.
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