Chapter 4: Carbohydrates And Etc

25 July 2022
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question
Chronic inflammation of body tissues accompanies uncontrolled diabetes and may contribute to eye, kidney, heart, and other associated problems.‚Äč True False
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true
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The best way to control blood glucose levels in diabetes is to avoid all sugary foods.‚Äč True False
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false
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Carbohydrate has been rightly accused of being the fattening ingredient of foods; therefore, we need to consume fewer starchy foods.‚Äč True False
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false
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The glycemic index and glycemic load of foods may be of interest to people with diabetes who must strive to regulate blood glucose control.‚Äč True False
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true
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You are teaching a client how to possibly lower blood cholesterol levels by consuming foods high in fiber. Which of the following foods would be least effective for this purpose?‚Äč oat bran cereals‚Äč ‚Äčwhole-wheat breads ‚Äčblack-eyed peas ‚Äčyoung green peas ‚Äčapples
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whole-wheat breads
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Dietary fiber has been recommended for its possible benefits in reducing heart disease by lowering blood cholesterol. How is fiber thought to play its role in lowering blood cholesterol?‚Äč ‚Äč-Insoluble fiber binds with cholesterol in the large intestine and is excreted in feces. ‚Äč-Viscous fiber binds with bile in the intestine and is excreted in feces. ‚Äč-Soluble fiber binds with cholesterol in the blood and is excreted by the liver. ‚Äč-Insoluble fiber converts to bile in the large intestine and binds with cholesterol. ‚Äč-Soluble fiber converts dietary cholesterol into bile, which is recycled for use in the digestive process.
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Viscous fiber binds with bile in the intestine and is excreted in feces.
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You are trying to convince someone that a low-carbohydrate diet is undesirable. What would you say to support your reasoning?‚Äč ‚Äč-Fat is readily available as fuel for the brain and red blood cells. ‚Äč-Gram for gram, carbohydrates provide more total energy than dietary fats. -‚ÄčLow-carbohydrate diets are expensive and require the purchase of special foods. ‚Äč-Carbohydrates serve important functions as parts of certain protein molecules. -The adult DRI for total carbohydrate, which must be met for good health, is 300 grams per day.‚Äč
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The adult DRI for total carbohydrate, which must be met for good health, is 300 grams per day.
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Research has shown the following relationship between carbohydrate in the diet and body weight: ‚Äč-people with higher carbohydrate intakes have higher body weights. ‚Äč-added sugars provide many of the excess calories that cause weight gain among U.S. adults. -‚Äčas people in other countries adopt "Western" style diets, they lose weight. ‚Äč-excess calories from fructose cause greater weight gain than those from other nutrients. ‚Äč-added sugar intake is most strongly linked with body weight in people with type 2 diabetes.
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added sugars provide many of the excess calories that cause weight gain among U.S. adults.
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Among the following, the form of starch that is most easily digested in the body is:‚Äč ‚Äčcooked beans. ‚Äčoatmeal. ‚Äčbarley. ‚Äčwhite flour. ‚Äčoat bran.
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white flour
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Complex carbohydrates:‚Äč -include both single sugar units and linked pairs of sugar units. -‚Äčare known as the monosaccharides and disaccharides. ‚Äč-are long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber. ‚Äč-contain calcium, hydrogen, and nitrogen. ‚Äč-are small molecules containing six carbon atoms.
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are long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber
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If you are asked for advice on whether diets high in fiber can reduce colon cancer risk, what would you reply?‚Äč ‚Äč-Scientific evidence proves that low-fiber diets cause colon cancer, so fiber should be included in everyone's diet. ‚Äč-You cannot eat enough fiber to receive the benefit, so you need to also include fiber supplements. -‚ÄčFiber does not play any role in the health of the colon, so it is not necessary to include large amounts in the diet. -‚ÄčFermentation of fiber in the colon provides small fat molecules that may activate cancer-destroying mechanisms. ‚Äč-The cholesterol-lowering properties of fiber are beneficial for lowering the risk of both heart disease and colon cancer.
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Fermentation of fiber in the colon provides small fat molecules that may activate cancer-destroying mechanisms
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Carbohydrates are essential to provide energy for the body because:‚Äč ‚Äč-the glucose that is produced from them is vital to fuel most of the body's cells. -‚Äčproteins are available only to provide building block materials for tissues. -‚Äčketone bodies produced from proteins do not provide adequate energy for cells. ‚Äč-fats are not able to provide any energy to the cells. ‚Äč-they provide ketone bodies, which are the preferred energy of the body's cells.
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the glucose that is produced from them is vital to fuel most of the body's cells.
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Which monosaccharide is responsible for the sweet taste of fruit? ‚Äčglucose ‚Äčfructose ‚Äčgalactose ‚Äčsucrose ‚Äčmaltose
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fructose
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Which of the following foods contains about 15 grams of carbohydrate?‚Äč ‚Äč2 cups of brown rice ‚Äč1 cup of cooked corn ‚Äč1/2 cup of dried fruit ‚Äča slice of bread ‚Äč1 cup of cooked tomatoes
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a slice of bread
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When the blood glucose level rises after a meal, the first organ to respond is the: ‚Äčpancreas. ‚Äčliver. ‚Äčstomach. ‚Äčgallbladder. ‚Äčkidney.
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pancreas
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Potential harmful effects of too much fiber include:‚Äč ‚Äčhypoglycemia. ‚Äčlimited absorption of iron, zinc, or calcium. ‚Äčextreme weight loss. ‚Äčhyperglycemia. ‚Äčchronic diarrhea.
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limited absorption of iron, zinc, calcium
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Which of the following is most closely related to diabetes?‚Äč sugar content of the diet‚Äč ‚Äčbody fatness ‚Äčfat content of the diet ‚Äčlean body tissue ‚Äčcalorie consumption
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body fatness
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Which food component is not an example of fiber?‚Äč "strings" of celery‚Äč ‚Äčouter layers of kernels of wheat ‚Äčresidue in milk ‚Äčskins of corn kernels ‚Äčhulls of seeds
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residue in milk
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Grapes and grape soda both provide sugars, but the grapes are a healthier choice because:‚Äč they are more energy dense.‚Äč ‚Äčthey contain more sucrose and less fructose. ‚Äčthey are less nutrient dense. ‚Äčthey provide fiber and phytochemicals. ‚Äčthey are essentially calorie free.
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they provide fiber and phytochemicals.
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Digestible carbohydrates are broken down or converted into ____ inside the body. fructose‚Äč ‚Äčlactose ‚Äčglucose ‚Äčgalactose ‚Äčsucrose
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glucose
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In evaluating the potential link between high-fructose corn syrup (HCFS) and obesity, scientists have found that:‚Äč ‚Äč-HFCS is more harmful than sucrose. ‚Äč-eating HCFS does not stimulate the release of insulin from the pancreas. -‚Äčthe metabolic effects of sucrose and HFCS are mostly similar. -‚Äčconsuming HCFS beverages on a daily basis significantly decreases triglyceride levels in the blood. ‚Äč-consumption of HCFS should be limited but sucrose intake is safe at all levels.
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the metabolic effects of sucrose and HFCS are mostly similar.
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According to the Dietary Reference Intakes, people should obtain ____ of their daily energy from carbohydrates.‚Äč 10%-35%‚Äč ‚Äč45%-65% ‚Äč20%-35% ‚Äč65%-70% ‚Äč>70%
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45-65%
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Which of the following nutrients is not required by law to be added to refined grain products?‚Äč ‚Äčriboflavin ‚Äčfolate ‚Äčmagnesium ‚Äčthiamin ‚Äčniacin
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magnesium
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The bonds that link glucose units into polysaccharides are not all the same. Which of the following is true of these bonds? -‚ÄčThe bonds of starch are found in plants and are easily broken by human enzymes. ‚Äč-The bonds of glycogen are found in animals and cannot be broken by human enzymes. ‚Äč-The bonds of cellulose are found in plants and are easily broken by human enzymes. -‚ÄčHuman enzymes cannot join glucose units. ‚Äč-Humans require help from bacteria to break starch bonds.
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?
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‚ÄčWhich of the following statements is false concerning the splitting of glucose for energy? ‚Äč-Inside a cell, glucose is broken in half and these two halves have two pathways open to them. ‚Äč-Glucose can be broken down to yield energy and carbon dioxide. ‚Äč-Glucose fragments can be linked together into molecules of body fat. -‚ÄčBody fat can be converted into glucose to feed the brain adequately. ‚Äč-Water is a by-product of splitting glucose for energy.
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body fat can be converted into glucose to feed the brain adequately
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Why might a very high-fiber diet be harmful for malnourished people, the elderly, and young vegan children? Low fluid intakes among these groups increase risk of intestinal blockage. High iron and zinc intakes among these groups lead to chelation interactions. The small amounts of food consumed among these groups can result in inadequate energy or nutrient intakes. Risk of hypoglycemia is higher among these groups ‚ÄčRisk of heart disease is higher among these group.
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The small amounts of food consumed among these groups can result in inadequate energy or nutrient intakes.
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In the past several decades, carbohydrate intake in this country has: ‚Äčincreased along with calorie intake. ‚Äčincreased along with fat intake. ‚Äčdecreased while fat intake has increased. ‚Äčdecreased while protein intake has increased. ‚Äčincreased while body weight has declined.
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‚Äčincreased along with calorie intake
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The extent to which a food raises the blood glucose level and elicits an insulin response can be measured and ranked on a scale called the:‚Äč digestibility index.‚Äč ‚Äčglycemic index. ‚Äčhypoglycemic index. ‚Äčinsulin index. ‚Äčglucose index.
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glycemic index
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Which of the following is the preferred fuel for most body functions?‚Äč ‚Äčprotein ‚Äčketones ‚Äčcarbohydrate ‚Äčfat ‚Äčfiber
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carbohydrate
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‚ÄčThe best way to lose fat, maintain lean body tissues, and stay healthy in the long-term is to: avoid all starchy foods.‚Äč ‚Äčcontrol food portion sizes. ‚Äčchoose low-fiber vegetables. ‚Äčeat more refined carbohydrates. ‚Äčavoid all high-fat foods.
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control food portion sizes.
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The disaccharides include:‚Äč ‚Äčsucrose, galactose, and maltose. ‚Äčmaltose, fructose, and galactose. ‚Äčlactose, glucose, and fructose. ‚Äčsucrose, maltose, and lactose. ‚Äčsucrose, maltose, and fructose.
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sucrose, maltose, lactose
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When fructose and glucose are bonded together they form: ‚Äčtable sugar. ‚Äčmalt sugar. ‚Äčmilk sugar. ‚Äčfruit sugar. ‚Äčcandy sugar.
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table sugar
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‚ÄčA friend says, "My diet contains no sucrose because I don't eat table sugar." Is this likely to be true? ‚Äč-Yes, because sucrose is only found in table sugar. -‚ÄčNo, because sucrose occurs naturally in or is added to many foods. ‚Äč-No, because sucrose occurs in germinating seeds and arises during digestion. -‚ÄčNo, because sucrose is found in milk. -‚ÄčNo, because sucrose does not have to be listed on food labels so we cannot know if we are consuming sucrose or not.
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‚ÄčNo, because sucrose occurs naturally in or is added to many foods.
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Factors that can lead to the development of hypoglycemia include all of the following except:‚Äč ‚Äčoveruse of alcohol. ‚Äčcertain medications. ‚Äčpancreatic cancer. ‚Äčobesity. ‚Äčpoor management of type 1 diabetes.
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obesity
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Which of the following is not one of the complex carbohydrates?‚Äč most fibers‚Äč ‚Äčglycogen ‚Äčgalactose ‚Äčstarch ‚Äčcellulose
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galactose
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Plants store glucose as starch because:‚Äč ‚Äčanimals cannot digest starch. ‚Äčthe starch can be washed away by rain. ‚Äčstarch is soluble in water. ‚Äčglucose is soluble in water. ‚Äčstarch holds more energy per gram.
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glucose is soluble in water
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Sugar has been implicated by many people in some major health problems. One effect of sugar on health that has been shown scientifically is that:‚Äč -‚Äčsugar consumed in large amounts leads to obesity, even when calorie intake does not exceed calorie needs. -‚Äčeating large amounts of pure sugar puts a strain on the pancreas, leading to diabetes. ‚Äč-fructose suppresses the human appetite in the same way that glucose does. -‚Äčconsumption of two fructose- or sucrose-sweetened soft drinks per day for a few weeks results in significant changes in blood lipids. -‚Äčthe link between sugar intake and diabetes is weaker when total calorie intakes exceed the daily need.
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consumption of two fructose- or sucrose-sweetened soft drinks per day for a few weeks results in significant changes in blood lipids.
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All of the following are health benefits of insoluble fiber except:‚Äč it lowers risk of diabetes.‚Äč ‚Äčit alleviates constipation. ‚Äčit lowers risk of hemorrhoids. ‚Äčit may reduce risk of rectal cancer. ‚Äčit reduces complications from diverticulosis.
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it lowers risk of diabetes
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All of the following compounds are fibers except:‚Äč ‚Äčglycogen. ‚Äčcellulose. ‚Äčhemicellulose. ‚Äčpectin. ‚Äčlignin.
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glycogen
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Which food is not a major source of soluble fiber?‚Äč ‚Äčfruits legumes‚Äč ‚Äčvegetables ‚Äčnonfat dairy ‚Äčseaweeds
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nonfat dairy
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A desirable intake of dietary fiber for a woman under age 50 is ____ daily, according to the DRI guidelines.‚Äč ‚Äč5 grams per 1,000 calories ‚Äč10 grams per 1,000 calories ‚Äč14-15 grams ‚Äč40-55 grams ‚Äč25 grams
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25 grams
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The incomplete breakdown of fat that occurs when carbohydrates are not available produces:‚Äč ‚Äčglucose fragments. ‚Äčglycogen bodies. ‚Äčketone bodies. ‚Äčamino acids. ‚Äčglucose.
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ketone bodies
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Which of these protein foods are good sources of carbohydrate?‚Äč ‚Äčlean beef and pork ‚Äčfish and shellfish ‚Äčlegumes and nuts ‚Äčpoultry products ‚Äčlamb and game meats
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legumes and nuts
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To magnify the sweetness of foods without boosting their calories, you could:‚Äč chill sweet foods before eating them.‚Äč ‚Äčincrease the sugar added to recipes by one-half. ‚Äčchoose beverages containing concentrated juice sweeteners. ‚Äčstir in spices such as marjoram, basil, or oregano. ‚Äčadd small amounts of nonnutritive sweeteners to foods.
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add small amounts of nonnutritive sweeteners to foods