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Data

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Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses.

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Statistics

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the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions.

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Two types of data sets?

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Population, Sample

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Population

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collections of all out comes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest.

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Sample

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a subset, or part, of a population

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Parameter

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a numerical description of a population characteristic

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statistic

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a numerical description of a sample characteristic

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A sample statistic will not change from sample to sample
True or False

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The statement is false. A sample statistic can change from sample to sample.
A parameter will not change*

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Descriptive statistics

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the branch of statistics that involves the organization, summarization, and display of data.

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Inferential statistics

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the branch of statistics that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population.

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Select all the levels of measurement for which data can be qualitative.
A.
Nominal
.B.
Interval
C.
Ratio
D.
Ordinal

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Nominal
Ordinal

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Data at the ordinal level are quantitative only.
True or False

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False. Data at the ordinal level can be qualitative or quantitative.

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For data at the intervalâ€‹ level, you cannot calculate meaningful differences between data entries
True or False

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The statement is false. A true statement isâ€‹ "For data at the intervalâ€‹ level, you can calculate meaningful differences between dataâ€‹ entries."

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More types of calculations can be performed with data at the nominal level than with data at the interval level
True or False

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False. More types of calculations can be performed with data at the interval level than with data at the nominal level.

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Data at the ratio level cannot be put in order.

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The statement is false. A true statement isâ€‹ "Data at the ratio level can be placed in a meaningfulâ€‹ order."

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What is the difference between an observational study and anâ€‹ experiment?

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In anâ€‹ experiment, a treatment is applied to part of a population and responses are observed. In an observationalâ€‹ study, a researcher measures characteristics of interest of a part of a population but does not change existing conditions.

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What is the difference between a census and aâ€‹ sampling?

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A census includes the entire population. A sampling includes only part of the population.

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What is the difference between a random sample and a simple randomâ€‹ sample?

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With a randomâ€‹ sample, each individual has the same chance of being selected. With a simple randomâ€‹ sample, all samples of the same size have the same chance of being selected.

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What is replication in anâ€‹ experiment? Why is replicationâ€‹ important?

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Replication is repetition of an experiment under the same or similar conditions. Replication is important because it enhances the validity of the results.

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A placebo is an actual treatment.
True or False

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The statement is false. A placebo is a fake treatment.

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Aâ€‹ double-blind experiment is used to increase the placebo effect.
True or False

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The statement is false. Double blinding is used to decrease the placebo effect.

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Using a systematic sample guarantees that members of each group within a population will be sampled.
True or False

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False. Using a stratified sample guarantees that members of each group within a population will be sampled.

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The method for selecting a stratified sample is to order a population in some way and then select members of the population at regular intervals.
True or False

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False. The method for selecting a systematic sample is to order a population in some way and then select members of the population at regular intervals.

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Observational studies are sometimes referred to as natural experiments. Explain what this means.

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In an observationalâ€‹ study, a researcher measures characteristics of interest of a part of a population but does not change existing conditions.

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nominal level of measurment

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qualitative only. Data at this level are categorized using names, labels, or qualities. No mathematical computations can be made at this level.

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Ordinal Level of measurment

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Qualitative and quantitative. Data at this level can be arranged in order, or ranked, but differences between data entries are not meaningful.

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interval level of measurement

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can be ordered, and meaning full differences between data entries can be calculated. No inherent zeros

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ratio level of measurment

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can be ordered, and meaning full differences between data entries can be calculated. Has inherent zeros

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Blinding

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a technique where the subjects do not know whether they are receiving a treatment or a placebo

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Double-blind experiment

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neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are receiving a treatment or a placebo

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random sample

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one in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.

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simple random sample

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a sample in which every possible sample of the same size has the same chance of being selected.

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convenience sample

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sample consisting of only members of the population that are easy to get to.