question

Data

answer

Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses.

question

Statistics

answer

the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions.

question

Two types of data sets?

answer

Population, Sample

question

Population

answer

collections of all out comes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest.

question

Sample

answer

a subset, or part, of a population

question

Parameter

answer

a numerical description of a population characteristic

question

statistic

answer

a numerical description of a sample characteristic

question

A sample statistic will not change from sample to sample
True or False

answer

The statement is false. A sample statistic can change from sample to sample.
A parameter will not change*

question

Descriptive statistics

answer

the branch of statistics that involves the organization, summarization, and display of data.

question

Inferential statistics

answer

the branch of statistics that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population.

question

Select all the levels of measurement for which data can be qualitative.
A.
Nominal
.B.
Interval
C.
Ratio
D.
Ordinal

answer

Nominal
Ordinal

question

Data at the ordinal level are quantitative only.
True or False

answer

False. Data at the ordinal level can be qualitative or quantitative.

question

For data at the interval level, you cannot calculate meaningful differences between data entries
True or False

answer

The statement is false. A true statement is "For data at the interval level, you can calculate meaningful differences between data entries."

question

More types of calculations can be performed with data at the nominal level than with data at the interval level
True or False

answer

False. More types of calculations can be performed with data at the interval level than with data at the nominal level.

question

Data at the ratio level cannot be put in order.

answer

The statement is false. A true statement is "Data at the ratio level can be placed in a meaningful order."

question

What is the difference between an observational study and an experiment?

answer

In an experiment, a treatment is applied to part of a population and responses are observed. In an observational study, a researcher measures characteristics of interest of a part of a population but does not change existing conditions.

question

What is the difference between a census and a sampling?

answer

A census includes the entire population. A sampling includes only part of the population.

question

What is the difference between a random sample and a simple random sample?

answer

With a random sample, each individual has the same chance of being selected. With a simple random sample, all samples of the same size have the same chance of being selected.

question

What is replication in an experiment? Why is replication important?

answer

Replication is repetition of an experiment under the same or similar conditions. Replication is important because it enhances the validity of the results.

question

A placebo is an actual treatment.
True or False

answer

The statement is false. A placebo is a fake treatment.

question

A double-blind experiment is used to increase the placebo effect.
True or False

answer

The statement is false. Double blinding is used to decrease the placebo effect.

question

Using a systematic sample guarantees that members of each group within a population will be sampled.
True or False

answer

False. Using a stratified sample guarantees that members of each group within a population will be sampled.

question

The method for selecting a stratified sample is to order a population in some way and then select members of the population at regular intervals.
True or False

answer

False. The method for selecting a systematic sample is to order a population in some way and then select members of the population at regular intervals.

question

Observational studies are sometimes referred to as natural experiments. Explain what this means.

answer

In an observational study, a researcher measures characteristics of interest of a part of a population but does not change existing conditions.

question

nominal level of measurment

answer

qualitative only. Data at this level are categorized using names, labels, or qualities. No mathematical computations can be made at this level.

question

Ordinal Level of measurment

answer

Qualitative and quantitative. Data at this level can be arranged in order, or ranked, but differences between data entries are not meaningful.

question

interval level of measurement

answer

can be ordered, and meaning full differences between data entries can be calculated. No inherent zeros

question

ratio level of measurment

answer

can be ordered, and meaning full differences between data entries can be calculated. Has inherent zeros

question

Blinding

answer

a technique where the subjects do not know whether they are receiving a treatment or a placebo

question

Double-blind experiment

answer

neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are receiving a treatment or a placebo

question

random sample

answer

one in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.

question

simple random sample

answer

a sample in which every possible sample of the same size has the same chance of being selected.

question

convenience sample

answer

sample consisting of only members of the population that are easy to get to.