APUSH Period 6 1865-1898

22 August 2022
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laissez faire
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Economic liberalism that believes in unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
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Social Darwinism
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The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
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JP Morgan
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An influential banker and businessman who bought and reorganized companies. His US Steel company would buy Carnegie steel and become the largest business in the world in 1901
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John D Rockefeller
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Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history
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Andrew Carnegie
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A business man that increased his power through by gaining control of the many different businesses that make up all phases of steel production development.
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Horizontal Integration
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A technique used by John D. Rockefeller. It is an act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the majority of his wealth.
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Vertical Integration
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Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution. Company took over all different businesses on which it relied for its primary function (Carnegie Steel came to control not only steel mills but mines, railroads, etc)
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Robber baron
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Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
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Sherman Anti-Trust Act 1890
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First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
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Conspicuous Consumption
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Buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position
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Gilded Age
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1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
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Panic of 1893
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Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
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Knights of Labor
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1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed because of the Haymarket Square Riot
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Great Railroad Strike of 1877
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A violent but ultimately unsuccessful interstate strike, which resulted in extensive property damage and many deaths. The first major interstate strike in us history. The panic of 1873 caused railroad lines to cut wages which caused workers to walk off the job and block the tracks- it eventually turned violent. Federal troops finally quelled the violence. After workers turned violent the public began to blame them for the looting and violence and they lost all sympathy
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Haymarket Square 1886
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Demands for an 8 hour working day in Chicago. Demonstration by a group of anarchists cause a crowd of 1,500 people. Bomb exploded & police opened fire. Anarchists were tired on court.
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Homestead Strike 1892
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It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions.
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Pullman Strike 1894
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in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing, nonviolent strike Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
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Eugene Debs
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1855-1926. American union leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World, and five-time Socialist Party of America Presidential Candidate.
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American Federation of Labor 1886
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1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
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Samuel Gompers
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He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
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Mother Jones
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Labor activist who was a member of the Knights of Labor union and who used publicity techniques to create awareness of the plight of mine workers and child laborers.
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The New South
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Not all white southerners revered the lost cause. Many looked to the future rather tha the past. They attempted to modernize the South's economy and to disversify southern agriculture. They encouraged northern investment and the building of new railroads to tie the south into national and internaltional markets. Rather than a lost cause, these southerners looked to a new south
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Crop-lien system
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Similar to sharecropping — merchants loan food and supplies to farmers so they can farm; farmers have to pay them back with some of their crops. When harvests were bad, farmers got deeper and deeper in debt to merchants.
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Sharecropping
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A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
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Tenant farming
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System of farming in which a person rents land to farm from a planter
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Grange 1867
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Farming cooperatives, farmers share supplies
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Granger Laws
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Grangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional
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Farmers Alliance
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In 1873 the Grangers founded this. Their goals promote social gatherings/education opportunities, organize against abuse, form cooperative/women played a significant role, and wanted political pressure. This later led to the founding of the populist party.
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Colored Farmers Alliance 1886
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An organization for coloured farmers who rallied behind political reforms to solve the farmers' economic problems.
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Populists
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Group that called for nationalizing the railroads, telephones, and telegraph; income tax, loans for farmers, and free and unlimited coinage of silver.
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Free silver
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Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan
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William Jennings Bryan
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1896 Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party.
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National American Women Suffrage Association
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a group formed by leading suffragist in the late 1800s to organize the women's suffrage movement. Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
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American Women Suffrage Association
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focused on winning the right to vote for women state by state.
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Women's Christian Temperance Union
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This organization was dedicated to the idea of the 18th Amendment - the Amendment that banned the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcohol.
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Morrill Land-Grant Acts
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Passed by Congress in 1862, this law distributed millions of acres of western lands to state governments in order to fund state agricultural colleges.
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Frederick Jackson Turner
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"The Significance of the Frontier in American History"
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Dawes Act
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1887 law that divided reservation land into private family plots
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Credit Mobilier
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1872, This was a fraudulent construction company created to take the profits of the Union Pacific Railroad. Using government funds for the railroad, the Union Pacific directors gave padded construction contracts to Congress members
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Boss Tweed
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Leader of the Democratic Tammany Hall, New York political machine
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Interstate Commerce Act 1887
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Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
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Socialism
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A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
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Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
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(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. American workers felt threatened by the job competition.
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Jim Crow Laws
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State laws in the South that legalized segregation.
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Plessy v. Ferguson
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a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
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Grandfather clause
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A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.
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Gospel of Wealth
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This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
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Edward Bellamy
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In 1888, he wrote Looking Backward, 2000-1887, a description of a utopian society in the year 2000.
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Social Gospel
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A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.
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Booker T. Washington
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African American leader from the late 1800's until his death form 1915; founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama; encouraged African Americans to learn trades and become economically self-sufficient before calling for equal rights.
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Helen Hunt Jackson
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"A Century of Dishonor" led to some American sympathy toward Indians
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Frederick Taylor
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American mechanical engineer, who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. He is known as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants.
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Lochner v. New York
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overturns new york law setting 8 hr maximum working hours for bakery workers- 1905. Violates his constitutional right of liberty of contract through the 14th amendment