AP Human Geography FINAL EXAM Review

12 March 2023
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physical and human
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what are the two types of geography?
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physical geography
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the branch of geography dealing with natural features and processes
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human geography
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the branch of geography dealing with how human activity affects or is influenced by the Earth's surface
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cartography
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the science or art of making maps. The "charting" of the earth
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distortion
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what is the flaw in turning 3D maps to flat maps?
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reference and thematic
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what are the two types of maps?
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reference map
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type of map that shows locations of places and geographic features. it also shows absolute locations and is the most common type of map
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thematic map
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type of map that tells a story about the degree of an attribute, the pattern of its distribution or its movement. it also shows relative location
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mental maps
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maps that we carry in our minds of places we have been to and places we have heard of. can be form correctly or incorrectly based on the influence of media
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terra incognita
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unknown land, place that we know are there but we don't know any details about them
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paths
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movement from one place to another (roads, sidewalks, etc.)
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the more frequent you travel on a path, the more you become familiar with it
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what about paths?
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accessibility
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the idea that if you have access to another path, then you can go to more places
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activity spaces
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places we travel routinely in our rounds of daily activity (place we are the most familiar with)
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location, place, human environmental interaction, movement, and regions
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what are the five themes of geography?
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absolute and relative
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what are the two types of locations?
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relative location
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type of location where you are in relation to something else, dynamic (can change)
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absolute location
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the exact location of an object, static (cannot be changed), uses longitude and latitude
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latitude
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lines that run east and west, parallel lines, never intersects
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longitude
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north south lines that measures east and west of your prime meridian
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meridian
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any line that runs 0ยบ is called a ______.
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international date line
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what is the 180ยบ line called?
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divide the earth into timezones
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what is the international date line used for?
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geographic information system
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GIS
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GIS
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storing information in LAYERS, bringing maps together, taking things apart from a certain area, allows for more interaction and data collection on area
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dispersion
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the amount of something in a given area
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density
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how COMPACT/spread out something is in a certain area
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physical and human
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what are the two types of place?
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physical place
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place that has differences that include naturally occurring phenomenas (climate, landforms, etc)
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human place
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characteristics of the people who inhabit a spot on Earth (culture related), groups that migrate and leave an impact on an area
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place names
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names that people put on places that are important to them (representative of history)
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site
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the internal physical attributes of a place, including its ABSOLUTE location, its spatial character and physical setting
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sense of place
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infusing a place with meaning and emotion. INDIVIDUAL PERCEPTION
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perception of place
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belief or understanding of what a place is like, often based on books, movies, etc.
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human environmental interaction
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how humans use the environment and adapt it in their everyday lives
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environmental determinism
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philosophy, view on human behavior and success is strongly affected and determined by the physical environment. A WAY OF THINKING, when civilizations consume resources, what are the effects of those resources?
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possibilism
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natural environment limits the range of available choices; humans are the sole factor in determining their own direction and success. HUMANS RESPONSIBLE
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global interdependence
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concept of movement from one place to another provides the key link to geographers in explaining how we are all connected
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migration
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people moving
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diffusion
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ideas moving
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culture
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all-encompassing term that identifies the tangible lifestyle of people and their prevailing values and beliefs
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hearth
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starting point of a culture
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diffusion
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the process of dissemination, the spread of an ideas from its starting point to other ideas
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time distance decay and cultural barriers
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what prevents/slows down diffusion?
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time distance decay
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the longer and the further it takes for an idea to reach a destination, the less impact
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must be receptive
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place receiving impact of diffusion...
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expansion diffusion
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type of diffusion that spreads outward from the hearth
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contagious diffusion
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type of diffusion that spreads out adjacently (spreads to area around hearth). don't have a choice of accepting it
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hierarchical diffusion
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spreads to the most linked people or places first. goes to people who are willing to accept the diffusion and not all people will be affected by it
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stimulus diffusion
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idea promotes a local experiment or change in culture. changes the idea to something that a culture can accept (at first, the change is not acceptable, so they change it so it is acceptable)
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relocation diffusion
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movement of individuals who carry an idea or innovations with them to a new perhaps distant location. MUST be through physical movement of humans
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makes borders between countries irrelevant
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what does globalization do in terms of countries?
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formal region
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area that is defined by commonality, typically a cultural linkage or physical characteristics
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functional region
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region defined by a set of social, political, or economic activities or the interactions that occur within it
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perceptual region
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ideas about regions that exist in the mind and is INDIVIDUAL
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rap music
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example of hierarchical diffusion
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maharaja burger
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example of stimulus diffusion
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diseases
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example of contagious diffusion
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iPod
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example of globalization
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location of a city using latitude and longitude
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example of location
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fieldwork
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study of geographic phenomena by visiting places and observing how people interact
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medical geography
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study of health and disease within a geographical context and perspective
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pandemic
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an outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide
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epidemic
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regional outbreak of a disease
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location theory
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logical attempt to explain patterns of an economic activity that are interrelated
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connectivity
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degree of direct linkage between one area to the next through transportation
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sequent occupance
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motion that successive societies leave their cultural imprint on a place. Relates to cultural landscape
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geographical placement system
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GPS
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GPS
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satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or features
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geocaching
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a hunt for a circle, the GPS coordinates which are placed on the internet by other geographers
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remote sensing
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a method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments far away
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culture trait
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single element of normal practice in a culture
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culture complex
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related set of cultural traits
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cultural ecology
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the multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment
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political ecology
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an approach to studying nature - society relations that is concerned with the ways in which environmental issues both reflect and are the result of the political and socioeconomic contexts in which they are situated
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scale
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the relationship between a distance portrayed on a map and the same distance on the Earth, the representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization
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area, shape, and distance
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what are the three "things" that maps can distort?
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Carl Sauer
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Who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis?
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why of where
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Geography attempts to answer why things happen where they do. This is called...
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by adding in the question "so what?"
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how do geographers answer the "why of where" questions?
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analyze the reason why it matters and what special roles does it play
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what is the meaning of the question "so what?"
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spatial distribution map
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type of map that shows how something is distributed across space or an area
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map projection
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a mathematical method that involves transferring Earth's sphere onto a flat surface
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region
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a territory that encompasses many places that share similar physical and or cultural attributes
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Wilbur Zelinsky
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Who tackled the task of defining and delimiting the perceptual regions of the United Sates and southern Canada?
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globalization
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a set of processes that are increasing interactions, deepening relationships, and heightening interdependence without regard to country borders, the expansion of economic, political, and cultural process to the point were they become global on scale and impact
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location
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one of the five themes of geography that can be absolute or relative, the geographical situation of people or things
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place
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one of the five themes of geography that describes the human and physical characteristics of a location
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human environmental interaction
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one of the five themes of geography that considers to how humans adapt to and modify the environment
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movement
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one of the five themes of geography that studies the movement and migration across the planet
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region
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one of the five themes of geography that divides the world into manageable units for geographic study. has some sort of a characteristic that unifies the area
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infant mortality
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the number of infants dying
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population density
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measure of total populative relative to land size
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arithmetic density
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measure of ALL of the land, including bodies of water
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physiological density
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number of people per unit data of agriculturally productive/arable land
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arable
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land that is farmable is called ______.
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physiological density
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which is more accurate: physiological density or arithmetic density?
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doesn't take distribution into account
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what is the difficulty of arithmetic density?
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removes everything that isn't arable
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what does physiological density do that arithmetic density doesn't?
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population distribution
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descriptions of places where people are spread out. PEOPLE AREN'T EVENLY DISTRIBUTED
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Thomas Malthus
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predictor that thought population would exceed food supply
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population grew exponentially while food production grew linearly
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what did Malthus think in terms of the growth in population and food supply?
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demographic transition model
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multistage model of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization
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stage 1 of the demographic transition model
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low growth - high birth rate, high death rate, (birth and death rate cancel each other out), and low population growth
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stage 2 of the demographic transition model
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high growth - high birth rate, falling death rate, high population growth (society: from agricultural to urbanized, raising quality of life)
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stage 3 of the demographic transition model
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moderate growth - falling birth rate, low death rate, steady population growth (urbanized and more industrialized families have less children)
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stage 4 of the demographic transition model
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low/stationary growth - (SPL) low birth rate, low death rate, steady/stationary population growth
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stage 5 of the demographic transition model
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population DECLINE - when the population starts to decrease in number
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industrialization and development
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demographic transition model correlates to ______.
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less developed, developed
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more people live in _______ countries than ________ countries.
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cohort
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age group in a population pyramid
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population pyramid
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a graph that shows % of age group in the total population, divided by gender
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poor countries
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these countries have a chart shaped like a pyramid (looks like a pyramid)
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steeper, faster
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the _______ the pyramid, the _______ the growth
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stagnation
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this "kind of population" maintains replacement rate (looks like a vase)
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declining population
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this "type of population" in a country grows more older, even less kids, more longer lives (type of population pyramid, looks like a diamond)
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cyclic movement
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movement away from home for a SHORT PERIOD
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periodic movement
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movement away from home for a LONGER PERIOD
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movement
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the intent of returning home and different amount of time gone
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migration
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a change in residence that is intended to be PERMANENT
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push factors
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negative influences that causes people to move away from an area or to not to come to an area
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pull factors
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positive influences that causes people to come to an area
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economic conditions, political circumstances, armed conflict and war, environmental conditions, culture and traditions, technological advances
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what are the 6 major categories/reasons of push and pull factors?
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remittances
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money sent to a home country
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because of family
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why are remittances sent?
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international migration
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movement that involves crossing the borders of countries
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internal migration
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movement that occurs within a country, a state, a city...
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forced migration
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movers have no choice of moving to another area
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voluntary migration
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movers have a choice of moving to another area
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dot maps
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maps where one dot represents a certain number of phenomenon such as population
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megalopolis
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used to designate large coalescing super-cities that are forming in diverse parts of the world
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census
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a periodic and official count of a country's population
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doubling time
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the time required for a population to double in size
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natural increase
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is an actual number of population growth that is measured as the excess of live births over deaths. DOESN'T REFLECT EMIGRATION/IMMIGRATION MOVEMENTS.
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natural increase rate
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same as natural increase but is showed as a PERCENTAGE (%)
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birth rate
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number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population
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death rate
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number of deaths yearly per thousand people in a population
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stationary population level
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level at which a national population ceases to grow
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stationary population level
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SPL
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population composition
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structure of a population in terms of age, sex, and other properties like education
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child mortality rate
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describes the number of children that die between the 1st-5th year in their lives in a population
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life expectancy
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how long an average a person may be expected to live
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expansive population policies
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government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth
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eugenic population policies
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government policies designed to favor one racial sector over others
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restrictive population policies
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government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase
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nomadism
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movement among a definite set of places - often cyclic movement
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migrant labor
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common type of periodic movement involving millions of workers who cross borders worldwide to find jobs
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transhumance
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a seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between high land and lowland pastures
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laws of migration
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the five laws that predict the flow of migrants
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Ravenstein
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who developed the laws of migration?
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gravity model
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a mathematical prediction of the interaction of places; population size of the two places and the distance between two places (population (1) x population (2)/distance)
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step migration
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migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages
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intervening opportunity
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the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away
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kinship links
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types of push and pull factors that influence a migrant's decision to go where family/friends have found success
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chain migration
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pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship links
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immigration wave
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phenomenon whereby different patterns of chain migration build upon one another to create a swell in migration
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colonization
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physical progress whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either bringing people or indentured outsiders
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islands of development
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place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and has high concentration of jobs
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guest workers
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legal immigrations who have a world visa, usually short term
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refugees
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people who have fled their country because of political persecution and seek asylum elsewhere
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internal refugees
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people who have been displaced within their own country and don't cross borders when fleeing
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international refugees
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refugees who have crossed one or more international boundaries during their dislocations looking for asylum elsewhere
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asylum
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shelter and protection in one state for refugees from another state
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immigration laws
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laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state
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quotas
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established limis by government on the number of immigrants who can enter a country by year
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selective immigration
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process to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds are barred from immigrating
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demography
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the study of human populations
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their population size and the distance between them
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the gravity model predicts interaction between places on the basis of...
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Africa
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what continent is most severely afflicted by dislocation?
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law of migration
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every migration flow generates a return or counter-migration
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law of migration
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the majority of migrants move a short distance
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law of migration
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migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations
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law of migration
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urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas
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law of migration
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families are less likely to make international moves than young adults
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70/r
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What is the doubling time formula?
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more women choose to stay in school, work on careers, and marry later
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Why are women having less children in more developed countries?
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East Asia, South Asia, and Europe
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where are the three major population concentrations?
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fertility rate
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average number of children born to a women during her childbearing years (2.1)
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Africa
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what region is experiencing the fastest population growth?
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exponential growth
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______ occurs when a population is adding a fixed percentage of people to a growing population each year
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worldwide
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life expectancy has increased where?
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carrying capacity
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the largest amount of people that an environment can withstand/support
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Africa
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what country has the highest rate of natural increase?
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dislocation
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a change in the population that disturbs the "flow" of a place
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economic/job opportunities
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what is the number one reason for people to move?
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commuting
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regular travelling from place to place within one's activity space (usually one's workplace and place of residence)
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example of cyclic movement
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commuting, seasonal movement, nomadism
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example of periodic movement
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migrant labor, transhumance, military service
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example of population distribution
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Egypt (people tend to live near Nile River and arable land rather than other places)
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example of physiological density
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Egypt (people live by the arable land more than the desert land)
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example of forced migration
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Atlantic Slave Trade
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example of voluntary migration
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economic opportunities, immigration
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example of stage 1 of the demographic transition model
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subsaharan africa
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example of stage 2 of the demographic transition model
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northern africa, south east asia, bangladesh
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example of stage 3 of the demographic transition model
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mexico, south america, india
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example of stage 4 of the demographic transition model
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northern and western european countries
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Scotland and Britain
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example of devolution
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United Nations and European Union
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example of supranational organizations
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Poland
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example of compact state
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Philippines
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example of fragmented state
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Chile
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example of elongated state
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Thailand
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example of prorupt state
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East Timor
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example of a perforated state (exclave)
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Lesotho
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example of a perforated state (enclave)
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Malaysia
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example of antecedent boundary
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Vietnam/China
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example of subsequent boundary
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Africa
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example of super imposed boundary
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Vietnam
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example of relict/relic boundary
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Ogaden region, Somalia and Ethiopia
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example of definitional/territorial boundary dispute
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Saudi Arabia and Yemen
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example of positional/locational boundary dispute
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United States and Mexico and Canada
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example of functional/operational boundary dispute
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United States and Mexico
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example of resource/allocational boundary dispute
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North and South Korea
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example of functional/operational boundary dispute
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political science
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the study of government, power, and politics
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government
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a system of rule over people and territory
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power
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the means to rule the people; legitimizing
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politics
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the process of using power in government, a way a society decides how power and resources will be divided within that society
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state
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political unit (can be used interchangeably with countries)
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nation
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refers to a tightly knit GROUP of people (usually having similarities such as religion, ethnicity, language, etc)
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False
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T/F? There can be states in nations
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True
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T/F? There can be nations in states
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territoriality
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pattern or behavior demonstrated in defense of a particular area that is claimed by someone or a group of people
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independent government, permanent population, defined boundaries, international recognition, sovereignty, and gray areas
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A state MUST HAVE all of the following in order to be a state....?
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sovereignty
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when the people in a country have a say in what happens within their government and their country
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ethnic identity, political aspirations, and homeland
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A nation MUST HAVE all of the following in order to be a nation...?
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population, territory, sovereignty, government
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A nation state MUST HAVE all of the following in order to be a nation state...?
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nation state model
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close match between political sovereignty and extend of a nation's homeland
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nation state
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A state that has a homogenous population, meaning the population mostly has one ethnicity identity and one political goal
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artificial nation state
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Nation state that is made through forced migration and restrictive policies
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multination state
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political unit with two or more national homelands
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ethnic nationalism or stages of fragmentation
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The creation or the existence of multination states may lead to...
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devolution, separatism, and secession
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what are the stages of fragmentation? (in the order of severity)
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separatism
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independence movements in peripheral ethnic regions, when a nation is underneath control over another country and kind of becomes their own "country" but they lack sovereignty and international recognition
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devolution
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the movement of power from the central government to regional governments within the state; when a controlling state recognizes independence in state being controlled and allows some rights
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secession
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when a country or state separates from controlling state entirely
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multistate nation
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when a cultural unit (homeland) exists across the boundaries of more than one political unit
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irredentism
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multistate nations may lead to...
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irredentism
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political goal to unify a nation across existing state borders
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stateless nation
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nation with political aspirations without sovereignty over its homeland or simply a nation who has a homeland but no defined state
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ethnic and civic
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what are the two forms of nationalism?
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ethnic nationalism
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type of nationalism where a pride of a nation based on identity with specific culture
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civic nationalism
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type of nationalism where a pride of a nation is based on government system or political ideals that transcends ethnicity
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compact, fragmented, elongated, prorupt, and perforated
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what are the type of state shapes?
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compact state
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state shape that resembles a circle, distance from any point of the country to its center is the same, has great geographic stability, and it has its capital in the center
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fragmented state
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state that consists of 2 or more "pieces," pieces are rather large and are many in numbers, can make some interactions within the country more difficult, are commonly known as island nations, and they tend to have many nations spring up on those pieces of land
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elongated state
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state that can separate areas due to distance from center or core, "stretched out," and has different levels of development/interaction
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prorupt state
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compact state with a tail, has an area that extends from a compact area, can create room for fractions geographically has problems with the extended part, and the extended part is disconnected with the country
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perforated state
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state that is broken by another country, difficult to maintain, short in duration, and can be separated to two types: exclaves and enclaves
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exclave
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perforated state that has a part that is separated from the state by another
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enclave
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perforated state that is surrounded by another state entirely
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political fragmentation
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collapse of the government
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balkanization
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fragmentation into small states that may not be visible, move to make your own state
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boundary
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a vertical plane that cuts through airspace and the ground below to determine ownership. You cannot take anything from a territory that's not yours
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define, delimit, demarcate, and administrate
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what are the steps of creating a boundary IN ORDER?
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genetic boundary
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type of boundary that signals where the boundary came from
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antecedent boundaries
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boundaries that were defined and delimited before humans settled; often exist because of areas that discourage settlement (physical features)
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subsequent boundaries
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can change; boundaries which were developed according to the cultural landscape (people move, culture and boundaries move)
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superimposed boundaries
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forcibly drawn boundaries across a cultural unified landscape
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relict/relic boundary
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boundary that has existed but has creased to exist, imprints of boundary still evident in cultural landscape
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definitional /territorial boundary dispute
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dispute that focuses on legal language of agreement of a boundary and what documents prove where it is
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positional/locational boundary dispute
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dispute that focuses on delimitation and demarcation of border and the interpretation of the definition of the border
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functional/operational boundary dispute
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dispute that focuses on how the boundary is administered and deals with immigrants... How should the border function? What is its purpose?
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resource/allocational boundary dispute
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dispute that focuses on how resources are distributed and used by both sides of the border... How do we allocate the resources in a certain area?
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water
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what is one of the common resource that countries fight over in boundaries?
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mari-time boundaries
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boundaries that focuses on how we divide the bodies of water up fairly for all countries
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landlocked states have the right to have access to water
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what is the key feature/idea about the UN convention on the LAW OF THE SEA?
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territorial, contiguous, and exclusive economic zone
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what are the "layers" or the different "zones" of each country's territory over the sea in order?
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territorial waters
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12 miles off the coast; if less, split between countries. Can treat this area like land; set laws, regulate the usage of resource in area
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contiguous zone
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12-24 miles off the coast, can enforce laws for pollution, right to tax, monitor goods and immigration
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exclusive economic zone
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EEZ
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exclusive economic zone
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200 miles off the coast, includes the previous layers, has the right of resource expolition, foreign nations can put in navigation, overfly, submarine pipes, and cables
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define
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step in creating a boundary that deals with the writing of the boundary and making note of it
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delimit
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step in creating a boundary that deals with mapping the boundary
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demarcate
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step in creating a boundary that deals with putting up barriers to show where those boundaries are; whether it would be fences, gates, etc
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administrate
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step in creating a boundary that deals with how that boundary is controlled and looked after; who comes and who goes over that boundary, and creating rules for that boundary
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stateless nation
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lacks the criteria of a state, but still has a homeland and can exist over many other state boundaries (ex: Kurds)
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nation within a state
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when a nation that has immigrated outside of its homeland to elsewhere and exists in that different state. CAN TRAVEL BACK TO HOME COUNTRY (ex: nations within US that have traveled to here)
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exclaves and enclaves
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what are the two types that perforated states can be separated into?
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center, problems
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as we move away from the ______, there is more _______ within a country
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communication, transportation
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a state's shape challenges ________ and ________.
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communication and transportation
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in terms of a state's shape, what are the main two categories for the problems between regions of a state?
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geopolitics
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how geography affects politics
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around the borders
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where in a compact state has problems that tend to occur more than others?
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in the extended region
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where in a prorupt state has problems that tend to occur more than others?
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at the tips
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where in an elongated state has problems that tend to occur more than others?
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electoral geography
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how we have voting right, how we divide up into districts, states, nations. This mostly applies to the US
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territorial integrity
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the right of a state to defend sovereign territory against incurrsion from other states
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Peace of Westphalia
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negotiated in 1648, this constituted peace concluded in Europe's most destructive internal struggle over religion, contained new language of recognizing statehood and nationhood, clearly defined borders, and guarantees of security
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mercantilism
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the idea of "a country is more wealthy the more gold and silver they have." This was a driving force in colonialism. It required a favorable balance of trade. EXPORT MORE THAN YOU IMPORT. Associated with the promotion of commercialism and trade
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colonialism
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the act of perserving an area and maintaining control rather than destroying it and depriving it of its resources and the WEALTH GOES BACK TO THE MOTHERLAND
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imperialism
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the attempt to control/conquer an area with the goal to exploit resources and riches from there to the mother country, destroy what is in that area and deprive it from its resources
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world systems theory
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theory that has three tenets that describes the world's economy
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one of the three tenets of the world systems theory
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world economy has one market and a global division of labor
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one of the three tenets of the world systems theory
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even though the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy
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one of the three tenets of the world systems theory
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the world economy has a three-tier structure
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capitalism
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in the world economy, people, corporations, and states produce goods and exchange them on the world market, with the GOAL OF ACHIEVING PROFIT
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commodification
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process of turning something that wasn't profitable before into something that is and then successfully selling it or trading it
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core process
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process that incorporates higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology. This core process generates more wealth in the world economy
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periphery process
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process that incorporates lower levels of education, lower salaries, and lower technology. This core process generates less wealth in the world economy
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semi-periphery
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places were core and periphery processes are both occurring
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centripetal forces
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forces that unifies and binds a state or a nation together
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centrifugal forces
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forces that divides or separates a state or nation
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federalism
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a government/political system where there is a core power of a government as well as regions of a state have some political power in their country. This system has the people have a say in their government and they can vote
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unitary government
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a government/political system where there is a core government that controls everything in their country
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territorial representation
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in the House of Representatives, where each representative is elected from a territorially defined districted
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reapportionment
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the process by which districts are moved according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
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majority minority districts
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packed districts where a majority of the population is from the minority
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gerrymandering
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"redistricting for advantage," the designation of voting districts so as to favor a particular party or candidate
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physical political boundary
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boundaries that follow an agree-upon feature in the physical geographic landscape
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heartland theory
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developed by Mackinder, says that Eurasia has a "pivot" area. This pivot area has a bunch of resources, and if a country could control this area, they would ultimately have a tremendous amount of power
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unilateralism
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world order where the US is in a position of hard power dominance and with allies of the US following rather than joining the political decision making process
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supranational organization
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a separate entity composed of three or more states that forge an association and form an administrative structure for mutual benefit and in pursuit of shared goals
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international organization
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organization, company, or corporation that goes international to do their business there
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Berlin Conference
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historic event that created the boundaries in Africa
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antecedent, subsequent, superimposed, and relict/relic boundaries
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what are the four types of genetic boundaries?
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United Nations
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supranational organization that fosters international security and cooperation as well as help make the economy beneficial
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European Union
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supranational organization that are made up of European states to promote the economy of Europe
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geometric and physical political
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what are the two types of boundaries?
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geometric boundaries
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boundaries that are drawn using grid systems such as latitude and longitude or township and range
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physical political boundaries
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boundaries that follow an agreed upon feature in the physical geographic landscape
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democracy
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the "governmental" idea that the people are the ultimate sovereign
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german school
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developed by Ratzel, said that a state resembled an organism with territory being the life giving force to try and explain why certain states were powerful and how to become powerful
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the world economy has one market and one division of labor, everything happens within the world economy, and the world economy has a three tier structure
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what are the three tenets of the world systems theory?
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critical geopolitics
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intellectuals of statecraft construct ideas about places, and these ideas influence and reinforce their political behaviors and policy choices; as a result, those ideas affect us about our own ideas about places and politics
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culture (homogenous)
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1) a group of belief systems, norms, and values practiced by people
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folk culture
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type of culture that is small, incorporates a homogenous, is typically rural, and is cohesive in cultural traits
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popular culture
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type of culture that is large, incorporates heterogeneous populations, is typically urban, and experiences quickly changing cultural traits. Can change in a matter of days or hours
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local culture
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a group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or a community, who share experiences, customs, and traits, and who work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others
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material culture
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culture that includes the things that people construct, such as art, houses, clothing, sports, dance, and foods
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nonmaterial culture
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culture that includes the beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people
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assimilation
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the process through which people lose originally differentiating traits when they come into contact with another society or culture... the blending or fusing of minority groups into a dominant society
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customs
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a practice that a group of people routinely follows
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cultural appropriation
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the process by which other cultures adopt customs and knowledge and use them for their own benefit
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global local continuum
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the notion that what happens at the global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale, and vice versa. This idea posits that the world is comprised of an interconnected series of relationships that extend across space
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glocalization
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the process by which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes
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folk housing region
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a region in which the housing stock predominantly reflects styles of building that are particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area
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diffusion routes
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the spatial trajectory through which cultural traits or other phenomena spead
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identity
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defined by Gillian Rose as how we make sense of ourselves or how we define ourselves
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identifying against
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constructing an identity by first defining the "other" and then defining ourselves as "not the other."
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race
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a constructed identity that is based on physical characteristics and other traits (culture, tradition) like skin color
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skin color
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what is the number one tell-tale for identifying a race?
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racism
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an extreme form of prejudice that involves judging people unfairly and the assumption that a person's own race/ethnic group is superior... a system or attitude toward visible differences in individuals, the concept of superiority attached to a race
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residential segregation
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defined by Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton as the degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of the urban environment
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neolocalism
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seeing out the regional culture and reinvigorating it in a response to the uncertainty of the modern world
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ethnic neighborhood
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neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or compromised if a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs
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commodification
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the process through which something that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought or sold becomes an object that can be bought, sold and traded in the world market
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authenticity
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the accuracy with which a single stereotypical or typecast image or experience conveys an otherwise dynamic and complex local culture or its customs
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distance decay
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the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction
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time space compression
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a term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world in which time-space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity. The likelihood of diffusion depends upon the connectedness (in communications and transportation technologies) among places
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reterritorialization
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with respect to popular culture, when people within a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making it their own
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placelessness
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defined by Edward Relph, the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next
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invasion and succession
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process where new immigrants to a city move to areas occupied by older immigrant groups and dominate that area
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ethnicity
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an identity that stems from the notion that people are closely bounded, even related, in a certain place over time by common ancestry or culture
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space
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defined by Doreen Mossey and Pat Jess as social relations stretched out
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place
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defined by Doreen Massey and Pat Jess as particular articulations of those social relations as they have come together, over time, in that particular location
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gendered
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places designed for women or for men
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dowry death
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in the context of arranged marriages in India, disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom (the dowry) have, in some extreme cases, led to the death of the bride
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queer theory
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theory that explains that social scientists (in the geography and other principles) are approaching a commonly used negative word in society and turning it to describe a theory that "highlights the contexual nature" of opposition to the heteronormative and focuses on the "political engagement of the queer with heteronormatives"
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barrioization
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defined by geographer James Curtis as the dramatic increase in Hispanic population in a given neighborhood; referring to barrio - Spanish word for neighborhood
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culture (heterogenous)
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2) people share a myriad of different group identities based on a complex interaction of personal identity, ethnicity, language, gender, and more
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culture (third definition)
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3) dynamic, constantly changing process that is shaped by political, social, and economic conditions
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cultural relativism
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how a culture related to another through behavior, traditions, language, and more. Comparing two cultures to see who's "better" or "superior"
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Wade Davis
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who was the speaker on unit 4's TED talk?
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ethnosphere
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cultural web = ....
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a symbol of humanity
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ethnosphere is...
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power
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what threatens the ethnosphere?
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ethnocide
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killing off culture in the name of "globalization." Negative like genocide
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social organization
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the arrangement of the parts that constitute society, the organization of social positions and distribution of people within those positions
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status
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socially defined niches or positions within a society. Labels for people
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role
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every status has expected behavior and duties - expected of thought, feelings, and treatment. What is this called?
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into conflict with each other
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roles can come...
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change depending on the environment
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roles can...
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group
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interrelated statuses or roles among two or more people
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culture
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by having groups, we are seeing what form?
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primary, secondary, community, and society
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what are the four types of groups?
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primary group
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very close relationship with one or more people over a long period of time
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secondary group
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a larger and less loving group, yet they have an intended purpose
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community
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people who live close together and work towards common goals
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society
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collection of all of the other types of groups
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cultural diffusion
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when ideas from one culture are spread to other cultures
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hierarchical and contagious
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cultural diffusion can be...
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cultural universals
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elements of culture that are present in all cultures world wide
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marriage and family, religion and magic, arts, and language
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what are the four cultural universals?
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cultural perception
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how we see other cultures, our point of view of the things that best represent an area based on what the culture is
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minority
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a group of people who, because of their physical or cultural characteristics, are singled out from the others in the society in which why live for differential and unequal treatment, and who therefore regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination
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majority
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a group of people who are the dominant "race" or "group" in an area
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race
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a group of people who share certain biologically inherited physical characteristics that are considered equally important within a society as well as the same culture, language, and sometimes religion
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ethnic minority
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a socially defined group that is identified by unique characteristics related to culture or nationality
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cultural differences
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what defines ethnic minorities?
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stereotypes
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a set of ideas - based on distortion, exaggeration, and oversimplification - that is applied to all members of a group
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discrimination
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the active unfair treatment of people that is based on ethnic race, religion, or culture
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prejudice
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widely held negative attitudes toward a group (majority or minority) and its individual members
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white and nonwhite
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for years, what two categories have the US separated races as?
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savages and uncivilized
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back then, what did Europeans define other races as?
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the Orient
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back then, what did the Europeans call the region that is now the Middle East and Asia?
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Milwaukee
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what is the most segregated city for African Americans?
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Phoenix-Mesa
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what is the most segregated city for American Indians and Alaska Natives?
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San Francisco
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what is the most segregated city for Asians and Pacific Islanders?
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New York
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what is the most segregated city for Hispanics?
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informal economic activity
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women engage in what type of jobs?
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informal economic activity
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private, often home-based activity
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Subsaharan Africa
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what is the one region that has not seen an increase in the number of women working in the workforce?
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model minority
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the myth that paints Asians as good, hardworking people who, despite their suffering through discrimination, harassment, and exclusion, have found ways to prosper through peaceful means
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spatial geography
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the geography of how things are spread out in a certain area
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situation
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the external locational attributes of a place; its RELATIVE location or regional position with reference to other nonlocal place
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cultural landscape
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the visible impact of human culture on a landscape
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replacement rate
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the total fertility rate at which women would have only enough children to replace themselves and their partner
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immigration
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when a person(s) migrates INTO a particular country or area
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emigration
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when a person(s) migrates OUT of a particular country or area
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splitting
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in the context of determining representative districts, the process by which the majority and the minority populations are spread evenly across each of the districts to be created therein ensuring control by the majority of each of the districts; as opposed to the result of majority minority districts
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redlining
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a discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominantly white neighborhoods. Today, the practice is illegal
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title, date, orientation, author, and scale
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what are the characteristics that every map must have?