Spanish 2B Unit 4 Study Guide

6 September 2022
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ÂĄHablemos de pelĂ­culas!
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Let's talk about movies! Have you ever thought about making your own film or video? These days, it's easier than ever to pick up a camera and shoot your own movie. Even if you don't own a video camera, you can always rent one, or just shoot a movie on a smartphone. You can be the director—el director orla directora, in Spanish—and you can ask a friend to play the role of the main character. Your other friends can play the rest of the roles. Who knows, someone you know might turn out to be Hollywood's next big movie star! Of course, before any of that can happen, you'll have to decide what kind of movie to make and what it will be about. The Spanish phrase to play the role of is hacer el papel, and the Spanish words for main character and movie star are el personaje principal and la estrella del cine. The Spanish words for it will be, to be about, and to rent are será, tratarse de, and alquilar.
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Diferentes tipos de pelĂ­culas
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My little brother Mateo and I love to go to the movies together. He's an actor in Los Ángeles, and he's been in lots of movies—action films, crime films, love stories, detective stories—you name it, he's done it! Like many people, my brother moved to the city because he hoped to succeed as an actor. Luckily, most of the critics who have reviewed his films have enjoyed his performances. In a competitive place like Los Ángeles, having other people recommend your work can help determine whether an actor is a success or a failure. It's a tough business, but I know my little brother has the talent to make it. The Spanish words for film, action film, crime, love, and detective are la pelĂ­cula , la pelĂ­cula de acciĂłn, el crimen, el amor, and el/la detective. The Spanish words for to succeed, to recommend, critic, and failure are tener Ă©xito, recomendar, el crĂ­tico/la crĂ­tica, and el fracaso. My favorite films are action films, but I also like a good detective story. What's your pelĂ­cula favorita? What kind of film would you make if you were un director o una directora? Would you make una pelĂ­cula de acciĂłn with lots of explosions and special effects to fascinate the audience? Or would you make a film about el amor in which characters are hopelessly in love with one another? How about a science fiction film starring a group of robotic aliens from beyond the stars? There are so many choices—all you need to do is pick one and go! The Spanish words for to fascinate, to fall in love (with), (to be) in love with, and alien are fascinar, enamorarse (de), (estar) enamorado/enamorada de, and el/la extraterrestre.
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La Pampa
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Now I'd like to tell you about la regiĂłn pampeana, or Las Pampas, in South America. This is a very large region that covers parts of Brazil and Argentina, and most of Uruguay. The word pampa, which comes from the Quechua people who lived in the area before Europeans arrived, means "flat, plain surface," like the Great Plains of North America. And, as you can see from the photograph, the Pampas is covered with prairie grasses, just like the plains of North America. Not many people live in La Pampa, but it is used for grazing animals. Large cattle and horse ranches, called estancias in Spanish, are all over la regiĂłn pampeana. You'll learn more about estancias, which have many things in common with American ranches, later in this lesson. A difference between La Pampa and the Great Plains of North America is the climate. The climate of La Pampa is mostly mild, and rainfall makes the soil fertile. The Great Plains, however, have a climate that varies greatly, from hot summers to cold winters. The weather in the Great Plains is much harsher than the weather in La Pampa, which is usually pleasant.
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La estancia
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The Argentinian estancia and the American ranch have many things in common. Both are places where ranchers raise cattle and other livestock. Both are privately owned, and both employ ranch workers to herd and care for the animals on the ranch. Ranch workers on both the Argentinian estancia and the American ranch usually work on horseback. In Argentina, most estancias are ranches that raise cattle and sheep, but some estancias are plantations where sugar cane is grown. In the United States, the ranch workers are called cowboys, and workers in Argentine estancias are called gauchos. Estancias were built after Europeans introduced livestock to Central and South America. At first the livestock roamed free, and the region's inhabitants would have to catch them to kill them for food. The Europeans decided to build fenced estancias so the livestock would stay in one place. Ranch workers still have to herd the livestock, but there is no danger of the animals running away. Often, the house on an estancia will be a grand manor with several stories, in the style of houses on plantations in the American South. In the United States, most ranching is done in the central and western regions of the country, including Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Montana, and Idaho. In Argentina, ranching is often done in La Pampa, where many estancias are located.
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Vocabulario para hablar de pelĂ­culas
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My brother Mateo and I sometimes talk about what we would do if we were in charge of la direcciĂłn, or the direction, of a film. What would our film be about? Would we make a film about el amor, or a film about el crimen? What kind of scenes, or las escenas, would we shoot? The Spanish words for to be about are tratarse de. What kinds of special effects, or los efectos especiales, would we use? Who would be our main character, or el personaje principal? What would the plot, or el trama, be? It's fun to think of un buen argumento for a film, and even more fun to imagine which estrella del cine we could get to play el personaje principal!
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El gaucho
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Now that you've learned about La Pampa, do you wonder what it's like to live there? As you've learned, La Pampa is sparsely populated, and many of the people who live there work on ranches, or estancias. The ranch workers on estancias are called gauchos. Gauchos are important players in the culture of La Pampa. Similar to the American cowboy, gauchos are part of the mythology and folklore of Argentina. Gauchos herd cattle and other livestock, and they do their work on horseback. While working in La Pampa, gauchos live on beef and yerba mate, a special kind of tea. Gauchos are similar in some ways to American cowboys. Both gauchos and cowboys carry a lariat to lasso livestock, and they wear hats to protect themselves from the sun. However, in other ways, they are very different. One way they are different is in the way they dress and the things they carry. Here are some of the items that make up a typical gaucho outfit: a poncho loose-fitting pants el facĂłn, which is a large knife el rebenque, which is a type of whip cloth shoes or leather boots Traditionally, a gaucho also carries las boleadoras, which are three rocks tied together with leather strips. A gaucho throws las boleadoras at the feet of livestock when herding them. The rocks get tied up around the animal's legs, and the animal can't run away.
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Nobleza gaucha
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Now I'd like to tell you about a film that takes place in La Pampa. The film is called Nobleza gaucha and was made in 1915. The film estĂĄ basado en MartĂ­n Fierro, a famous epic poem by JosĂ© HernĂĄndez. Both the film and the poem are about a simple but brave gaucho who acts heroically. La actuaciĂłn, or acting, is all done silently, because the film was made before movies had sound. El personaje principal of Nobleza gaucha is Juan, a gaucho who tames horses in La Pampa. El trama de la pelĂ­cula is that a wealthy businessman named Don JosĂ© Gran hires Juan to find horses for him in La Pampa. While Don JosĂ© Gran is in La Pampa, he sees a woman named MarĂ­a, who becomes su vĂ­ctima. Don JosĂ© Gran decides to kidnap MarĂ­a and bring her to Buenos Aires. Juan decides to save MarĂ­a from Don JosĂ© Gran. Juan fights Don JosĂ© Gran, saves MarĂ­a, and brings her back to La Pampa. Nobleza gaucha es una pelĂ­cula de amor —a film about love. The film is also about el crimen, and there is quite a bit of violencia in the film.
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ConcepciĂłn del Uruguay
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Remember how I mentioned a famous city called Concepción del Uruguay? I visited it last year, and I'd like to tell you more about it because I had a great time there! Concepción del Uruguay is a city in eastern Argentina that was founded in 1783. It's a big part of Argentina's history because it was the first city to join the cause of the revolution in 1810. History is so much a part of Concepción del Uruguay that a nickname for the town is "La Histórica." Walking around town is fun, because there are many old and beautiful buildings. But what is so special about this city? There are lots of things to do in Concepción del Uruguay—you can go to museums and water parks and visit beaches and islands. You can even go to the movies! One day when it was raining, I went to the movies with my friends. We saw una película muy interesante. La película was about un detective. Al detective le gusta una criminal—una ladrona. El detective has two choices: captura a la criminal or let her go.
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El mate
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When you go to las pampas, you have to try el mate! Mate, or yerba mate, is a drink that's a little like tea and a little like coffee. It's made from the leaves of a rainforest tree, and it's a traditional and popular drink in La Pampa. Yerba mate is thought to be good for your health. It also contains a lot of caffeine, which helps keep you awake. El mate is a drink that has a special ritual attached to it. It's traditionally served in a special container made from a calabash gourd. To sip the mate, a copper or silver straw called una bombilla is used. At a traditional gathering, the guests pass around the gourd—also called el mate—and la bombilla so that everyone may drink the mate. Mate is a form of art. Mate cups can be made out of a gourd, but artisans also craft silver, gold, and wooden cups. La bombilla too may be made out of silver, gold, or stainless steel, and decorated with paint. The artistry of the calabash and la bombilla can be quite elaborate!
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La payada
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Music, poetry, and a special type of performance called la payada are a big part of cultural life in Argentina and Uruguay. La payada is a song form consisting of forty-four lines broken up by 10-line stanzas called décimas, and it is often accompanied by a guitar with a syncopated beat. It's usually made up on the spot by a performer called un payador or una payadora. Traditionally, two payadores perform together, trading verses and trying to top each other. It's like a duel, but with poetry and singing with subjects ranging from satire to politics and philosophy to personal attributes. La payada can last many hours and ends only when one of the payadores can't think of a new verse to top his or her opponent. La payada is very popular in Argentina and Uruguay, but it's performed in parts of Brazil and Paraguay as well. It's an art form that has been especially popular with gauchos. Some people compare la payada to rap music, because both involve competition and sparring, and both require quick thinking and rhyming. Do you remember the epic poem Martín Fierro? It is written in the style of la payada. The tradition of la payada has been around for more than 100 years!
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Festival Internacional de Cine de Punta del Este
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One of the fun things to do in Uruguay at the end of the summer is to go to the Festival Internacional de Cine de Punta del Este. This is an international film festival that takes place in the city of Punta del Este, on the southeastern coast of Uruguay. More than 70 films are shown, and prizes for the top films are given at the end of the festival. The Festival Internacional de Cine de Punta del Este is a major event for the Uruguayan film industry. It's also important to the Spanish-speaking world in general. Most of the Spanish-speaking countries participate in the festival, and each year there is a guest country; in 2014 the guest country was MĂ©xico. A jury of three judges from different countries evaluate the films shown at the festival. During the festival in 2014, the three judges were from Italy, Uruguay, and Argentina. The award of Best Film was given to a film from Brazil. A film festival is a very lively event! In addition to showing the films, the festival also includes talks and panel discussions that are of interest to people in the film industry. Topics include finance, film production, and film festivals. Many major countries have their own film festivals for local and regional filmakers, and others are also international. For example, one of the most popular film festivals in the world is the Festival de Cannes, held annually in France.
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GramĂĄtica
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-----------Verbs with Indirect Objects-------------- Do you recall how to use indirect object pronouns? Remember, indirect object pronouns are used to tell "to whom" or "for whom" something is done. In Spanish, they are used with verbs like gustar, hablar, and interesar. Here are the indirect object pronouns again: me, te, le, nos, os,and les. Remember to use them when you are telling to whom or for whom something is done. Look at the sentences below: Nos gusta la película. The film is pleasing to us. Le hablaron en español. They spoke to him in Spanish. Me interesa el libro. The book is interesting to me. Did you also remember that the verb needs to agree with its subject, not with the direct or indirect object? In the first example above, the verb gusta; agrees with its subject, which is película. Don't make the error of trying to make the verb agree with the indirect object, which is nos. -------------Presente perfecto-------------- Now let's take a few minutes to review the present perfect tense. Remember, the present perfect tense tells about something that happened in the past and may still be happening. To turn a verb into the present perfect tense, you need to use the auxiliary verb haber, which means "to have," plus a past participle. Do you remember how to form a past participle? Just take the infinitive, drop the last two letters, and add one of the following endings: For verbs ending in . . . add . . . -ar -ado -er -ido -ir -ido Here's an example of the present perfect tense for the verb hablar: he hablado (I) have spoken has hablado (you) have spoken ha hablado (he/she/it/you, formal) has/have spoken hemos hablado (we) have spoken habéis hablado (you, pl.) have spoken han hablado (they, you, pl.) have spoken Once you get the hang of conjugating haber, it's not hard to form the present perfect tense. Remember, the present tense forms of haberare: he , has, ha, hemos, habéis, and han. The more you use it, the better you'll get at doing it!
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Cultura
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Now let's talk about movies again! Do you watch the Academy Awards each year? The Academy Awards, or Oscars, are American awards given for excellence in film. Awards go to Best Actress, Best Director, Best Picture, and more. There's also a category for Best Foreign Film. Films from many Latin American countries have been nominated for Best Foreign Film. These countries include PerĂș, MĂ©xico, Brazil, Argentina, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Nicaragua, and others. But what's really exciting is that Argentina has won Best Foreign Film twice—once in 1985 and once in 2009! Both films are excellent, and I'd like to tell you more about them. La historia oficial (The Official Story) is a drama that won the Academy Award in 1985. It is a very moving story that deals with Argentina's difficult past. El argumento of the film is this: A couple had adopted a baby who is now a little girl. Soon after the beginning of the movie, the mother starts to suspect that the child may have come from parents who were killed by the military dictatorship that ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1983. Many crimes happened during this time, and one of those crimes was the appropriation of babies born in captivity. This period of time is called Argentina's "Dirty War." The discovery gets even more unsettling when the woman, Alicia, finds out that her husband was connected to the regime and that was how he was able to get the baby. The film that won the Oscar in 2009 is called El secreto de sus ojos (The Secret in Their Eyes). This film deals with the period of time right before and after Argentina's Dirty War. In the film, a lawyer and one of her justice agents try to solve a murder case that occurred 25 years before. It is one of the most popular films in Argentina's history! I encourage you to see other Argentinian and Latin American films, in Spanish if possible. You can learn so much by watching a foreign film, especially the good ones!
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Lihué Calel National Park
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Do you like the outdoors? Are you interested in ancient art? A great way to enjoy both is to visit Lihué Calel National Park in Argentina. The park is located in the southern part of La Pampa province. It's very mountainous and remote, which means it's not easy to get there, but once you do, it's worth it! The name Lihué Calel comes from a phrase from the Pehuenche language meaning "the range of life." The Pehuenche were the original people who lived in La Pampa, before Europeans arrived. And Lihué Calel really does have a range of life! The park has more than 350 species of plants and many different kinds of birds and animals, including the crowned eagle, the wild parakeet, the puma, the Patagonian fox, the armadillo, the Patagonian hare, different types of lizards, and more. An image shows the Rio Pinturas Valley in Argentina, where cave paintings have been found. An image shows ancient cave paintings in Patagonia, Argentina. The park is home to some amazing archaeological finds. The biggest one is the area known as Valle de las pinturas, or Valley of the Paintings. Here you can see rock paintings dating back to 2000 BCE! The paintings were made by indigenous people who lived in the area during that time period. The artists used red and black pigments and geometric designs to depict common events, such as hunting and village life. These ancient markings were among our first glimpses of ancient life, and we were able to learn about many characteristics of indigenous people through these findings. For many years, Lihué Calel National Park was an estancia run by a private owner, but in 1977, the government took it over, and it is now open to the public. Visitors can camp, hike, and go on tours of the park to see the animals and ancient art. If you go to La Pampa, don't miss Lihué Calel National Park!