# Section 11-2: Probability And Punnett Squares

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Probability
The likelihood that a particular event will occur is called ___________.
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50 percent.
*What is the probability that a single coin flip will come up heads?*
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False.
*Is the following sentence true or false? The past outcomes of coin flips greatly affect the outcomes of future coin flips.*
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The way in which alleles segregate is completely random, like a coin flip.
*Why can the principles of probability be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses?*
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They can use Punnett squares to predict and compare the genetic variations that will result from a cross.
*How do geneticists use Punnett squares?*
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Genetic makeup of an organism (Tt).
*What is a genotype?*
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Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait (Tt or tt).
*What does homozygous mean?*
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Physical characteristic of an organism (tall).
*What is a phenotype?*
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Organisms that have two different alleles for the same trait (Tt).
*What does heterozygous mean?*
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True.
*Is the following sentence true or false? Homozygous organisms are true-breeding for a particular trait.*
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False.
*Is the following sentence true or false? Plants with the same phenotype always have the same genotype.*
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A. The F2 ratio of tall plants to short plants produced in a cross between two hybrid tall pea plants (Tt) is 3 tall plants for every 1 short plant. B. Mendel observed that about three-fourths of the F2 offspring showed the dominant trait. C. Segregation occurs according to Mendel's model.
*What is true about probability and segregation?*
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3:1.
*In Mendel's model of segregation, what was the ratio of tall plants to short plants in the F2 generation?*
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False.