_________ makes children believe that they will be good at anything they try to do.
Which scenario is typical of the industry versus inferiority stage?
A) Rudy is having difficulty learning math, but he continues to practice.
B) Cliff says that his girlfriend, Clare, does not understand him .
C) Theo decides to stop taking piano lessons.
D) Vanessa says, "My parents never let me do anything!"
Rudy is having difficulty learning math, but he continues to practice.
Jane, an 11-year-old, lives in a low income neighborhood with high crime and drug use. Which of the following would NOT help Jane cope with this environment?
-having a good role model with similar beliefs
-having a "second home" where there are many activities
-religion and faith
-relying on only herself to overcome the adversity
relying on only herself to overcome the adversity
A 15-year-old-girl realizes that the dress she has worn to school has a small stain on it. Her belief that everyone will notice it is an example of:
-the personal fable
Danny, age 4, loves to watch wrestling and practices on anyone he can. Freud would suggest that his obsession comes from a secret desire to:
-kill his mother
-kill his father
kill his father
Researchers had children sort picture cards by shape. Then they asked the same children to sort the same cards by color. They found that the children under the age of 4:
-could easily switch their original sorting pattern.
-could switch to sorting by shape but not by color.
-had difficulty changing to a new sorting pattern.
-could switch to sorting by color but not by shape.
had difficulty changing to a new sorting pattern.
could switch to sorting by color but not by shape.
Fourteen-year-old Jonathan is sitting at the lunch counter next to his sister Erin. They are having hot dogs for lunch. When his mom cuts Jonathan's hot dog into five pieces and Erin's into six pieces, Jonathan protests, "Erin has more than me!" Which ability does Jonathan not yet demonstarte?
A magician's goal is to get the audience to focus on one aspect of his demonstration while he manipulates another. This is easy to do with preoperational children, as they are fooled by their tendency to:
-be logical thinkers
-reverse things in their minds.
Which of these acts would be considered child maltreatment?
-A parent yelling at a child.
-A stranger following a child.
-A teacher withholding a snack after the child threw a toy.
-A caregiver leaving a child alone while going to a store.
A caregiver leaving a child alone while going to a store.
Today's children could become the first generation in more than 100 years to have a shorter lifespan then their parents as a result of:
-their propensity to overeat and underexercise.
-an increase in the number of accidents involving teenagers.
-new, deadly diseases for which there are no cures.
-a lack of access to quality medical care.
their propensity to overeat and underexercise.
When Rose, age 3, sees a little boy fall and hurt himself, a look of concern appears on her face. She is probably experiencing:
At 3 years, Robert can still wear the same shorts he wore at 15 months, but he can no longer wear the same pants that he wore then. What is true of Robert?
-He may be malnourished
-He may be a victim of abuse
-His physical development is normal for his age
-His physical development is unusual for his age
His physical development is normal for his age
John has the ability to talk informally with his friends and more formally to his teachers during class. Clearly John understands the:
-metacognitive aspects of intellect
-control processes of regulation
-pragmatics of his language
-automatized view of social interaction
pragmatics of his language
Chelsey is in the third grade. She spends many hours rehearsing her math skills, reading books, and collecting bugs. According to Erikson, Chelsey is developing a healthy sense of _____________ through these tasks.
Since Carter's mother suffers from depression and his father is an alcoholic, Carter is often neglected. Despite his circumstances, he maintains a positive outlook. What may be helping Carter to maintain his positive attitude?
-looking toward the future and living on his own
-his circle of friends and their activities
-understanding his parent's problems
-the belief that things will eventually get better
his circle of friends and their activities
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder:
-struggle to pay attention and focus.
-can concentrate momentarily.
-are always objective.
-are always impulsive.
struggle to pay attention and focus.
Gross motor skills such as riding a tricycle are acquired:
-through brain maturation and practice.
-due to brain maturation only.
-only if the parents teach the skills.
-through practice only.
through brain maturation and practice.
The period when children's bodies become adultlike is called:
-the growth spurt
-secondary sexual development
Research indicates that female children who experienced a great deal of _________ while very young also experienced early puberty.
Which learning disability is characterized by unusual difficulty with reading?
The network of nerves that connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain and helps to coordinate functions that involve both sides of the brain is referred to as:
A person's average body mass index is the lowest between the ages of:
-13 to 14
-9 to 10
-5 to 6
-1 to 2
5 to 6
" I catched two mouses in a trap" is an example of:
-past imperfect tense
Ellie is 10 years old and well into puberty. She will probably experience:
-a better body image than her peers.
-teasing and name-calling from her classmates.
-pride that she is ahead of her friends.
-welcome attention from boys her age.
teasing and name-calling from her classmates.
Most preschool children cannot tie their shoelaces because:
-their fingers are too small and too thin
-lateralization is not yet complete
-they are impulsive
lateralization is not yet complete
Developing self-respect, nurturing friendships with peers, and encouraging learning are three of the:
-measurements of family harmony
-suggestions for stress resilience
-functions of a family
functions of a family
A 2-year-old human's brain is __________ percent of the adult brain's weight.
An example of a fine motor skill is:
-roller-skating around the block.
-playing catch with a football.
-swimming across a pool.
-using scissors to cut paper.
using scissors to cut paper.
Chris can typically be found with the same group of close friends on the gym steps at lunchtime. He and his friends do not ask others to sit with them. Psychologists call Chris's group a:
When children hear a new word in a familiar context, they can simply add the word to the general category without fully understanding the word. This is called:
What is one of the actions peers provide in active play?
-a quiet environment
A preschool child thinks a tall 20-year old man is older than a short 40-year old man. This is an example of:
-focus on appearance.
focus on appearance.
A parenting style characterized by high parent-to-child communication, low warmth, and high expectations of maturity is:
Sally's 8-year old son is 30 percent over his ideal weight. Sally can best help her son by:
-signing her son up to play on a soccer team
-taking walks and going swimming with her son on a regular basis
-having her son watch tv shows on dieting
-putting her son on s strict diet
taking walks and going swimming with her son on a regular basis
Which scenario best illustrates prosocial behavior?
-Bethany feeds her baby brother because her mother is sick.
-Savannah takes out the garbage for a quarter.
-Gwen says "please" when asking her mother for a dollar.
-Selena helps her mother clean so that her mother will take her to the park.
Bethany feeds her baby brother because her mother is sick.
Sunnymount Preschool has plenty of opportunities for the children to play dress-up, dance, build with blocks, finger-paint, and be creative. Sunnymount is most likely a _______ program.
Billy and Rodney are both building with constructive bricks. They are sitting apart, each with their own set of bricks. Wht type of play is this?
The four dimensions of a parenting style are warmth, discipline, communication, and:
-expectations for maturity.
expectations for maturity.
Jake's father takes him to the barber for his first real haircut. At first, Jake is excited, but as soon as the barber makes the first cut in his hair he becomes very upset and tells his father to make the barber stop. In spite of his father's efforts to assure Jake that his hair will grow back, Jake is exhibiting the characteristic known as:
Today, children who are in the middle childhood stage of development are experiencing better physical health then they did decades ago. Which is NOT a factor in the improved physical health of children?
-an increase in hand washing behavior
-earlier diagnosis and treatment of health conditions
-the reduced exposure to secondhand smoke
-a reduction in the number of colds children catch
a reduction in the number of colds children catch
Josefina is obsessed with her weight. She sometimes eats a whole package of Oreos at once and then makes herself vomit. Josefina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. She MOST likely suffers from:
-degenerative organ disorder
Ann's usual bedtime is 8:30pm, and her parents enforce this rule. One evening, Ann is watching an educational program that ends at 9pm. She asks her parents if she can stay up to watch the end of the show. Her parents agree to let her stay up as long as she gets up in time for school in the morning. Which parenting style is Ann's parents demonstrating?
A 6-year-old human's brain is ______________ percent of the adult brain's weight.
Two-year old Julia repeatedly exclaims, "Me do it!" when her mother tries to help her. Although this behavior is frustrating, her mother understands that doing things independently will develop Julia's sense of:
Xavier, 16, invites a group of his high school friends to swim in a neighbor's pool late at night while that neighbor is away. They climb the fence and jump in, playing wildly and loudly in the water. Just a few minutes later, the police arrive. How does the adolescent brain development explain Xavier's poor decision making?
-His prefrontal cortex is underdeveloped.
-The regions regulating his emotions are underdeveloped.
-His limbic system is underdeveloped.
-His amygdala is underdeveloped.
His prefrontal cortex is underdeveloped.
Parental monitoring is most likely to be effective and healthy when it is:
-part of a warm, supportive relationship
-relaxed and permissive
-part of authoritarian parenting
-rigid and controlling
part of a warm, supportive relationship
Randy hits or kicks Edwin on the playground nearly every day. He also encourages other children to laugh at Edwins attempts to kick a ball. Randy is using_________ aggression against Edwin.
For boys, the event that most closely parallels menarche is:
As friendships change during the school years, children are most likely to:
-change friends more often
-have more friends
-demand more of their friends
-find it easier to make friends
demand more of their friends
Jared, age 5, describes himself as a good soccer player, with black hair who laughs a lot. His description demonstrates his developing:
Patty is 5 feet tall and weighs 87 pounds yet when she looks in the mirror, she sees an overweight girl. She does aerobics for two hours daily and eats very little. Patty MOST likely suffers from:
-a degenerative organ disease
The individual most likely to have grown up with permissive parents is:
-Paul, who is unhappy and lacks self-control.
-Richard, who is obediant, but not very happy.
-Peter, who is a gang member and a drug user.
-George, who is happy and successful.
Paul, who is unhappy and lacks self-control.
Each time Juan puts a puzzle together, his father gives him a little less help. Which theorist would be MOST pleased with Juan's father?
Ivan was playing under the kitchen table when he stood up suddenly and bumped his head. He pointed at the table and sternly said, "Naughty table!" This is an example of:
Sydney helps her 2-year-old daughter to make hot chocolate. She helps the child to measure teaspoons of cocoa into a cup, add water, stir the contents, and then microwave the cup. Syndney is providing:
-the zone of proximal development.
Spanking is NOT the most effective form of discipline because:
-spanking only temporarily increases obedience
-spanking teaches that physical violence is a solution to anger
-children usually forget why they are being spanked
-all of the above
all of the above
One problem about athletic sports leagues is that:
-they limit children's opportunities to learn teamwork
-there is less and less space for these teams to play
-children with low socioeconomic status are unlikely to belong to these teams
-poor sportsmanship is rampant among parents
children with low socioeconomic status are unlikely to belong to these teams
When Jenny sees her third-grade teacher in the grocery store, she is shocked to see her outside of school. This is likely due to Jenny's:
Drug use before the age of 18:
-is rare because it is illegal
-is statistically lower than drug use at age 15
-predicts later drug abuse
-usually only involves experimentation with alcohol
predicts later drug abuse
The ability to plan and prioritize appears to be directly related to the development of the ___________ cortex.
Just as monkeys do in their rough-and-tumble play, human children:
-determine a social hierarchy.
-play hide and seek.
-use a play face.
use a play face.
The type of moral reasoning that focuses on both social standards and laws is called:
Olivia is an extremely shy and anxious 8-year-old girl. Other children seem to dislike her. She appears to be a(n):
Which statement is correct?
-There is a correlation between body fat and and the early onset of puberty only among Native American adolescents.
-There is a negative correlation between body fat and the early onset of puberty.
-There is a positive correlation between body fat and the early onset of puberty.
-There is no correlation between body fat and the early onset of puberty.
There is a positive correlation between body fat and the early onset of puberty.
-allows children to think in symbols.
-includes logical reasoning.
-is characterized by reversibility of thought.
-relies on children's motor skills and senses.
allows children to think in symbols.
By the age of ______, children are convinced certain toys are appropriate for one gender but not for the other.
Which statement about oral health is true?
-It is not necessary to brush until children start to lose their baby teeth.
-Almost all young children in the United States have been to the dentist.
-It is vital for children in early childhood to brush their teeth every day.
-Diet soda is a good option to help prevent tooth decay in children.
It is vital for children in early childhood to brush their teeth every day.
By the age of 2, a child will typically have a vocabulary of _________ words, by the age of 6, a child will typically have a vocabulary of _______ words.
Seven-year-old Hannah can arrange 10 buttons in order from smallest to larget. Her understanding of _____ allows her to accomplish this.
Skills that the child can accomplish with assistance but can't yet perform independently are part of:
-the zone of proximal development
-the gap between heredity and learning.
the zone of proximal development
The common theme underlying children with either externalizing or internalizing problems is:
-both are extreme expressions of emotions
-both have emotions that may overpower them
-both show an inability to regulate emotions
-all of the above
all of the above
Kendra, age 4, is very particular about her daily routines, especially at mealtime. She will only eat from a certain plate, drink from a certain cup, and must have a folded napkin next to her plate. She is exhibiting the phenomenon called:
An angry 5-year old girl might stop herself from hitting another chils because she has developed:
Psychosocial development during adolescence involves the search for a(n):
-understanding of oneself
-set of behviors to please others
understanding of oneself
During the adolescent growth spurt, what is the last part(s) of the body to grow?
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