# Introduction To Statistics

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Why study statistics?
Data is everywhere.
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Data Definition
Information from observations, counts, measurements, or responses.
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Statistics Definition (from teacher)
The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data.
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Parameter Definition
A number which describes a characteristic of a population.
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Statistic Definition (in book)
A number which describes a characteristic of a sample.
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Branches of Statistics
Descriptive and Inferential
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Descriptive Definition
The organization, summarization, and display of data.
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Inferential Definition
Uses a sample to find conclusions, analyzations, and probability about a population.
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Why is a sample used more often than a population?
Because it is more difficult to get an accurate population where as a sample is smaller and easier to assess.
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Types of data:
To put in order (good, better, best).
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Types of qualitative data:
Nominal and Ordinal
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Types of quantitative data:
Interval and Ratio
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Nominal
To list based on names.
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Ordinal
Qualitative and quantitative
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Interval
To find the mathematical difference. Including temperatures and dates.
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Ratio
To find a ratio between two things. Including weight and time.
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4 ways to collect data:
Observation, Experiment, Surveys, and Simulations.
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Observation
Study where you observe and record the outcome of a variable. Relatively easy to perform and can show correlation but not causation because of confounding variables.
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Example of Observation
Doctors in the 50's noticed that there was a correlation between smoking and lung disease.
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Experiment