Most organic compounds contain carbon and _____. (Concept 4.1)
The experiments of Wöhler, Kolbe, Miller, and other chemists invalidated the concept of vitalism by demonstrating that _____. Concept 4.1)
A) carbon atoms were common in both living organisms and nonliving substances such as rocks and soil
B) organic molecules could be produced apart from living organisms using inorganic materials
C) tissues extracted from living organisms could still promote organic reactions
D) one organic substance could be transformed into another organic substance
E) complex organic substances are the result of a series of sequential synthetic reactions occurring in both living organisms and nonliving systems.
Vitalism gave way to mechanism, the view that _____. (Concept 4.1)
A) There was a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws.
B) Carbon's ability to form four covalent bonds makes complex molecules possible.
C) Bond angles are unpredictable.
D) Physical and chemical laws govern living systems.
E) Life on Earth began by way of abiotic synthesis of organic compounds.
The large diversity of shapes of biological molecules is possible because of the extensive presence of ____ in the molecules. (Concept 4.2)
Which of the following is a hydrocarbon? (Concept 4.2)
The valence for nitrogen is 3 because _____. (Concept 4.2)
A) that is the number of electrons needed to complete nitrogen's outermost electron shell
B) the molecular mass of nitrogen is 3
C) that is the number of hydrogen bonds a nitrogen atom can form
D) that is the number of electrons needed to complete nitrogen's innermost electron shell
E) none of the above
Which of the following best describes geometric isomers? (Concept 4.2)
A) They have the same number of atoms of the same elements but different structures.
B) They differ in their spatial arrangement around inflexible double bonds.
C) They are mirror images of each other.
D) They are long chains of hydrogen and carbon atoms.
E) They differ in the arrangement of covalent bonds and in covalent partners.
Citric acid makes lemons taste sour. Which of the following is a functional group that would cause a molecule like citric acid to be acidic? (Concept 4.3)
Variations in the reactive properties of different organic molecules are most closely associated with _____. (Concept 4.3)
A) the orientation of the carbon skeleton, as either ringed or linear
B) the presence or absence of double bonds
C) the number of carbon atoms comprising the molecule's skeleton
D) the presence or absence of functional groups
E) the number of asymmetric carbon atoms present
Choose the pair of terms that completes this sentence: Sulfhydryl is to ____ as ____ is to amine. (Concept 4.3)
A) carbon, nitrogen
B) hydroxyl, alcohol
C) ketone, amino
D) thiol, amino
E) aldehyde, ketone
are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties
have different covalent arrangements of their atoms
have the same covalent bonds but differ in spatial arrangements
are isomers that are mirror images of each other
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