OSHA 10 Hour Fall Protection Module 1 & 2

10 September 2022
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Areas Required to Have Fall Protection
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Unprotected sides and edges Leading edges Hoist areas Holes Formwork and reinforcing steel Ramps, runways, and other walkways Excavations Dangerous equipment Overhand bricklaying and related work Roofing work on low-slope roofs Roofs Pre-cast concrete erection Residential construction Wall openings Walking/working surfaces not otherwise addressed
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Duty to Have Fall Protection
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Fall protection is generally required when one or more employees have exposure to falls of six feet or greater to the lower level. Surfaces must be inspected before the work begins. Employees are only permitted to be on surfaces that are strong enough to support them.
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case
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Employers are required to assess the workplace to determine if the walking/working surfaces on which employees are to work have the strength and structural integrity to safely support workers. Employees are not permitted to work on those surfaces until it has been determined that the surfaces have the requisite strength and structural integrity to support workers. Once employers have determined that the surface is safe for employees to work on, the employer must select one of the available options for the work operation if a fall hazard is present.
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Leading Edge Work
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Each employee who is constructing a leading edge six feet (1.8 meters) or more above lower levels shall be properly protected. Suitable protection may be provided by guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems.
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Hoist Areas
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Each employee in a hoist area shall be protected from falling 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more by guardrail systems, personal fall arrest systems, or other appropriate means. If guardrail systems (or chain gate or guardrail) or portions thereof must be removed to facilitate hoisting operations, as during the landing of materials, and a worker must lean through the access opening or out over the edge of the access opening (to receive or guide equipment and materials, for example), that employee must be protected by one of the appropriate means.
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Formwork and Re-Bar
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During formwork or re-bar assembly employees shall be protected from falls of six feet or more by personal fall arrest systems, safety net systems, or positioning device systems.
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Ramps, Runways, and Walkways
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Each employee using ramps, runways, and other walkways shall be protected from falling 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more.
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Excavations
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Each employee at the edge of an excavation 6 feet (1.8 meters) or deeper shall be protected from falling by guardrail systems, fences, barricades, or cover, when the excavations are not readily seen because of plant growth or other visual barrier. Where walkways are provided to permit employees to cross over excavations, guardrails are required on the walkway if it is 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more above the excavation.
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Dangerous Equipment
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Each employee working above dangerous equipment must be protected from falling into or onto the dangerous equipment by guardrails systems or by equipment guards even in those cases where the fall distance is less than 6 feet (1.8m).
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Overhand Bricklaying
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Except as otherwise provided in the OSHA Fall Protection Standards, each employee performing overhand bricklaying and related work 6 feet (1.8 m) or more above lower levels, shall be protected from falling by guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, or shall work in a controlled access zone.
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Low-Sloped Roof Work
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Each employee engaged in roofing activities on low-slope roofs, with unprotected sides and edges six feet or more above lower levels, shall be protected from falling by guardrail systems, safety net systems, and personal fall arrest systems, or a combination of a warning line system and guardrail system, warning line system and safety net system, warning line system and personal fall arrest system, or warning line system and safety monitoring system.
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Safety Monitoring System:
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Safety Monitoring System: a safety system in which a competent person is responsible for recognizing and warning employees of fall hazards. Warning Line System: a barrier erected on a roof to warn employees that they are approaching an unprotected roof side or edge, and which designates an area in which roofing work may take place without the use of guardrails, body belts, or safety net systems to protect employees in the area.
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Steep Roofs
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Each employee on a steep roof with unprotected sides and edges 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more above lower levels shall be protected by guardrail systems with toe-boards, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, or by other appropriate means.
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Pre-Cast Concrete
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Each employee who is 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more above lower levels while erecting pre-cast concrete members and related operations such as grouting of pre-cast concrete members shall be protected by guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems.
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Wall Openings
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Each employee working on, at, above, or near wall openings (including those with chutes attached) where the outside bottom edge of the wall opening is 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more above lower levels and the inside bottom edge of the wall opening is less than 39 inches (1.0 meter) above the walking/working surface must be protected from falling by the use of a guardrail system, a safety net system, or a personal fall arrest system.
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Protection from Falling Objects
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When employees are exposed to falling objects, the employer must have employees wear hardhats and implement one of the following measures: Erect toe-boards, screens, or guardrail systems to prevent objects from falling from higher levels. OR Erect a canopy structure and keep potential fall objects far enough from the edge so that those objects will not go over the edge if they are accidentally displaced. OR Barricade the area to which objects could fall, prohibit employees from entering the barricaded area, and keep objects that may fall far enough away from the edge of a higher level so that those objects would not go over the edge if they were accidentally displaced.
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Types of Fall Protection - Passive Systems
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Passive systems are protective systems that do not involve the actions of employees. An example of a passive system is a catch platform extending around the perimeter of the work area.
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Guardrails: Design Criteria
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Top edge height of top rails, or equivalent guardrail system members, shall be 42 inches (1.1 m) plus or minus 3 inches (8 cm) above the walking/working level. When conditions warrant, the height of the top edge may exceed the 45-inch height, provided the guardrail system meets all other criteria of this paragraph. Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, or equivalent intermediate structural members shall be installed between the top edge of the guardrail system and the walking/working surface when there is no wall or parapet wall at least 21 inches (53 cm) high. Midrails, when used, shall be installed at a height midway between the top edge of the guardrail system and the walking/working level. Top rails and midrails shall be at least one-quarter inch (0.6 cm) nominal diameter or thickness to prevent cuts and lacerations. If wire rope is used for top rails, it shall be flagged at not more than 6-foot intervals with high-visibility material. For pipe railings: posts, top rails, and intermediate railings shall be at least one and one-half inches nominal diameter (schedule 40 pipe) with posts spaced not more than 8 feet (2.4 m) apart on centers. For structural steel railings: posts, top rails, and intermediate rails shall be at least 2-inch by 2-inch (5 cm x 10 cm) by 3/8-inch (1.1 cm) angles, with posts spaced not more than 8 feet (2.4 m) apart on centers. Screens and mesh, when used, shall extend from the top rail to the walking/working level and along the entire opening between top rail supports. Intermediate members (such as balusters), when used between posts, shall not be more than 19 inches (48 cm) apart. Other structural members (such as additional midrails and architectural panels) shall be installed such that there are no openings in the guardrail system that are more than 19 inches(.5m) wide.
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Types of Fall Protection - Active Systems
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Active fall protection systems require workers to be engaged in ensuring that proper protection is in use. This may include activities such as donning a full-body harness with an attached lanyard and attaching the lanyard to appropriate anchorage point. Active systems are designed to operate in free fall situations. Active systems must be connected to other systems/components or activated to provide protection. Active systems are designed to protect employees from the following: Falls Forces that can cause injury An example of an active system is a personal fall arrest system (PFAS).
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Safety Net Systems
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Safety net systems must comply with the following provisions: They must be installed as close as practicable under the walking or working surface on which employees are working, but in no case more than 30 feet below the surface. If the net is not vertically more than 5 feet from the working level, the safety net must extend outward from the outermost projection of the work by 8 feet. If the net is not vertically more than between 5 feet and 10 feet from the working level, the safety net must extend outward from the outermost projection of the work by 10 feet. If the net is vertically more than 10 feet from the working level, the safety net must extend outward from the outermost projection of the work by 13 feet. Safety nets must be drop-tested at the jobsite after they are installed and before use, whenever relocated, after major repair, and at 6-month intervals after installation if left in one place.
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Personal Fall Arrest Systems (PFAS)
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Personal Fall Arrest Systems (PFAS) shall not be attached to a guardrail system or hoists. All components of a fall arrest system must be inspected before each use and after impact. Defective components must be removed from service. Personal fall arrest systems and components subjected to impact loading shall be immediately removed from service and shall not be used again for employee protection until inspected and determined by a competent person to be undamaged and suitable for reuse. Action must be taken promptly to rescue fallen employees or be assured they can rescue themselves.
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When stopping a fall, a PFAS must:
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Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1,800 pounds (8 kN) when used with a body harness. Be rigged such that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet (1.8 m), nor contact any lower level. Be attached to an anchor point capable of withstanding 5000 pounds of force or shall be designed, installed, and used as part of a complete personal fall arrest system which maintains a safety factor of at least two and is used under the supervision of a qualified person. Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration, distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet (1.07 m). Have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free falling a distance of 6 feet (1.8 m), or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less.
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Inspecting Fall Protection Equipment
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Equipment must be inspected before each use for: Tears, cuts, burns and abrasions Distorted hooks, damaged springs, and non-functioning parts Manufacturer labels Deformed eyelets, D-rings and other metal parts Dirt, grease, oil, and other corrosives, and acids
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PFASโ€”Lanyards
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Lanyards are flexible lines of rope, wire rope, or strap which generallysynthetic fiber or wire rope which have a connector at each end for connecting the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage. Lanyards and vertical lifelines must have a minimum breaking strength of 5000 pounds. Lanyards should be attached to a D ring between the shoulder blades above the employee. There are several types of lanyards including: synthetic webbing, synthetic rope, and shock absorbing.
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Types of Lanyards
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Self retracting: Eliminates excess slack in the lanyard (cable, rope, or web) Shock absorbing: Device slows and eventually stops descent and absorbs the forces (i.e., rip stitch controlled tearing) Synthetic rope: Absorbs some of the force by stretching Synthetic webbing: Strong but not flexible (absorbs little force)
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PFAS - Life Lines
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Life lines consist of flexible material connected at one or both ends to an anchorage point. There are two types of life lines: Vertical: hangs vertically (5000 pound minimum breaking strength). Horizontal: connects at both points to stretch horizontally (serves as connection point for other components of PFAS- total system must have safety factor of two and be capable of locking in both directions on the lifeline).
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Lifelines, Safety Belts, and Lanyard (PPE)
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Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard actually subjected to in-service loading, as distinguished from static-load testing, shall be immediately removed from service and shall not be used again for employee protection until inspected and determined by a competent person to be undamaged and suitable for reuse. Vertical lifelines shall have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN). Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards which automatically limit free fall distance to 2 feet (0.61 m) or less shall be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 3,000 pounds (13.3 kN) applied to the device with the lifeline or lanyard in the fully extended position.
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Lifelines, Safety Belts, and Lanyard (PPE)
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Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard actually subjected to in-service loading, as distinguished from static-load testing, shall be immediately removed from service and shall not be used again for employee protection until inspected and determined by a competent person to be undamaged and suitable for reuse. Vertical lifelines shall have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN). Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards which automatically limit free fall distance to 2 feet (0.61 m) or less shall be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 3,000 pounds (13.3 kN) applied to the device with the lifeline or lanyard in the fully extended position.
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PFASโ€”Snaphooks
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Snaphooks are used to connect lanyards to D-rings on a body harness. D rings must be compatible. Must be connected to harness or anchorage point only. Snap hooks and D rings must have tensile strength of 5000 pounds and be proof tested to a minimal tensile load of 3600 pounds. When using snap hooks: All snap hooks must have a locking mechanism.
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Snaphooks
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Locking snaphooks have a self-closing, self-locking keeper, which remains closed and locked until unlocked and pressed open for connection or disconnection.
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PFAS - Anchorage Points
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The anchorage point is most effective when it is above the employee's head; located as to not allow an employee to fall more than 6 feet. Anchorages used for the attachment of personal fall arrest equipment shall be independent of any anchorage being used to support or suspend platforms and capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds per employee attached, or shall be designed, installed, and used as follows: As part of a complete personal fall arrest system which maintains a safety factor of at least two, and Under the supervision of a qualified person.
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Controlled Access Zone (CAZ)
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When used to control access to areas where overhand bricklaying or related work are taking place only qualified personnel involved in overhand bricklaying or related work are permitted in the controlled access zone. Ropes, wires, tapes, or chains with supporting stanchions are used to designate the area. Must be erected between 6 and 25 feet away from unprotected edge. The control line shall be connected on each side to a guardrail system or a wall. CAZ must be defined by a control line erected 10-15 feet from the edge. Lines must be flagged at 6 foot intervals and have a minimum breaking strength of 200 pounds.
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Safety Monitoring System
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The employer must designate a competent person to monitor the safety of other employees, and the employer has the duty to ensure that the safety monitor complies with the following requirements: He/she must be competent to recognize fall hazards. He/she must warn the employee when it appears that the employee is unaware of a fall hazard or is acting in an unsafe manner. He/she must be on the same walking/working surface and within visual sighting distance of employee being monitored. He/she must be close enough to communicate orally with the employee. He/she must not have other responsibilities which could take attention from monitoring function.
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Covers
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Covers are used to protect personnel from falling through holes in walking surfaces.Covers for holes in floors, roofs, and other walking/working surfaces shall meet the following requirements: All covers shall be secured when installed so as to prevent accidental displacement by the wind, equipment, or employees. All covers shall be color coded or they shall be marked with the word "HOLE" or "COVER" to provide warning of the hazard. Covers located in roadways and vehicular aisles shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least twice the maximum axle load of the largest vehicle expected to cross over the cover. All other covers shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least twice the weight of employees, equipment, and materials that may be imposed on the cover at any one time.
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Falling Objects
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Employers are required to protect their employees from falling objects. Some methods that might have to be used (when necessary) consist of: Installation of toeboards (at least 3.5 inches wide) erected along the edges of the overhead walking/working surfaces for a distance sufficient to protect persons working below. Toeboards shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 50 pounds applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the toeboard. Where tools, equipment, or materials are piled higher than the top edge of a toeboard, paneling or screening shall be erected from the walking/working surface or toeboard to the top of a guardrail system's top rail or midrail, for a distance sufficient to protect employees below. Building barricades and restricting entrance.
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Fall Protection Plan
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The fall protection plan option is available only to employees engaged in leading edge work, precast concrete erection work, or residential construction work who can demonstrate that it is unfeasible or it creates a greater hazard to use conventional fall protection equipment. If used, the plan should be strictly enforced.
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Elements of a Fall Protection Plan
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Statement of Policy Fall Protection Systems to be Used Implementation of Plan Enforcement Accident Investigation Changes to the Plan
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Training
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All employees exposed to fall hazards must receive training by a competent person who addresses: The nature of fall hazards in the work area. Procedures for erecting, maintaining, disassembling and inspecting fall protection systems to be used. Use and operation of fall arrest equipment.
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Training Elements Include:
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Role of employee in a safety monitoring system (when used) Limitations on the use of mechanical equipment for low-slope roofs Role of employees in fall protection plans Standards contained in 29 CFR 1926.500-503 Procedure for handling and storage of equipment
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What do you think were some of the causes of the accident?
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Although the victim had been wearing a safety harness while waiting on the scaffold, when he moved to adjust the hanging chains he was no longer wearing it and it wasn't tied off. Workers should have waited on the ground while the truck was being moved, and not at an elevated site that posed a danger of falling. The operations chief for scaffolding erection did not provide proper supervision regarding the proper use of personal fall arrest systems.