Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell walls. On the basis of this structural feature, which statement concerning mycoplasmas should be true?
A) They are gram-negative.
B) They are subject to lysis in hypotonic conditions.
C) They lack a cell membrane as well.
D) They should contain less cellulose than do bacteria that possess cell walls.
E) They possess typical prokaryotic flagella.
Which statement about bacterial cell walls is false?
A) Bacterial cell walls differ in molecular composition from plant cell walls.
B) Cell walls prevent cells from bursting in hypotonic environments.
C) Cell walls prevent cells from dying in hypertonic conditions.
D) Bacterial cell walls are similar in function to the cell walls of many protists, fungi, and plants.
E) Cell walls provide the cell with a degree of physical protection from the environment.
Jams, jellies, preserves, honey, and other foodstuffs with high sugar content hardly ever become contaminated by bacteria, even when the food containers are left open at room temperature. This is because bacteria that encounter such an environment
A) undergo death by plasmolysis.
B) are unable to metabolize the glucose or fructose, and thus starve to death.
C) experience lysis.
D) are obligate anaerobes.
E) are unable to swim through these thick and viscous materials.
The typical prokaryotic flagellum features
A) an internal 9 + 2 pattern of microtubules.
B) an external covering provided by the plasma membrane.
C) a complex "motor" embedded in the cell wall and plasma membrane.
D) a basal body that is similar in structure to the cell's centrioles.
E) a membrane-enclosed organelle with motor proteins.
Which statement about the genomes of prokaryotes is correct?
A) Prokaryotic genomes are diploid throughout most of the cell cycle.
B) Prokaryotic chromosomes are sometimes called plasmids.
C) Prokaryotic cells have multiple chromosomes, "packed" with a relatively large amount of protein.
D) The prokaryotic chromosome is not contained within a nucleus but, rather, is found at the nucleolus.
E) Prokaryotic genomes are composed of circular DNA.
Prokaryotes' essential genetic information is located in the
Regarding prokaryotic genetics, which statement is correct?
A) Crossing over during prophase I introduces some genetic variation.
B) Prokaryotes feature the union of haploid gametes, as do eukaryotes.
C) Prokaryotes exchange some of their genes by conjugation, the union of haploid gametes, and transduction.
D) Mutation is a primary source of variation in prokaryote populations.
E) Prokaryotes skip sexual life cycles because their life cycle is too short.
Hershey and Chase performed an elegant experiment that convinced most biologists that DNA, rather than protein, was the genetic material. This experiment subjected bacteria to the same gene transfer mechanism as occurs in
D) binary fission.
Which of the following obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic substancesenergy that is used, in part, to fix CO2?
D) chemoheterotrophs that perform decomposition
E) parasitic chemoheterotrophs
Mitochondria are thought to be the descendants of certain alpha proteobacteria. They are, however, no longer able to lead independent lives because most genes originally present on their chromosome have moved to the nuclear genome. Which phenomenon accounts for the movement of these genes?
E) horizontal gene transfer
Which statement about the domain Archaea is true?
A) Genetic prospecting has recently revealed the existence of many previously unknown archaean species.
B) No archaeans can reduce CO2to methane.
C) The genomes of archaeans are unique, containing no genes that originated within bacteria.
D) No archaeans can inhabit solutions that are nearly 30% salt.
E) No archaeans are adapted to waters with temperatures above the boiling point.
If archaeans are more closely related to eukaryotes than to bacteria, then which of the following is a reasonable prediction?
A) Archaean DNA should have no introns.
B) Archaean chromosomes should have no protein bonded to them.
C) Archaean DNA should be single-stranded.
D) Archaean ribosomes should be larger than typical prokaryotic ribosomes.
E) Archaeans should lack cell walls.
Assuming that each of these possesses a cell wall, which prokaryotes should be expected to be most strongly resistant to plasmolysis in hypertonic environments?
A) extreme halophiles
B) extreme thermophiles
E) nitrogen-fixing bacteria that live in root nodules
In general, what is the primary ecological role of prokaryotes?
A) parasitizing eukaryotes, thus causing diseases
B) breaking down organic matter
C) metabolizing materials in extreme environments
D) adding methane to the atmosphere
E) serving as primary producers in terrestrial environments
Which of the following traits do archaeans and bacteria share?
composition of the cell wall
presence of plasma membrane
lack of a nuclear envelope
identical rRNA sequences
A) 1 only
B) 3 only
C) 1 and 3
D) 2 and 3
E) 2 and 4
In a bacterium that possesses antibiotic resistance and the potential to persist through very adverse conditions, such as freezing, drying, or high temperatures, DNA should be located within, or be part of, which structures?
A) 1 only
B) 1 and 2 only
C) 1 and 4 only
D) 2 and 4 only
E) 1, 2, and 4
Which two structures play direct roles in permitting bacteria to adhere to each other, or to other surfaces?
A) 1 and 2
B) 1 and 3
C) 2 and 3
D) 3 and 4
E) 3 and 5
If all prokaryotes on Earth suddenly vanished, which of the following would be the most likely and most direct result?
A) The number of organisms on Earth would decrease by 1020%.
B) Human populations would thrive in the absence of disease.
C) Bacteriophage numbers would dramatically increase.
D) The recycling of nutrients would be greatly reduced, at least initially.
E) There would be no more pathogens on Earth.
Foods can be preserved in many ways by slowing or preventing bacterial growth. Which of these methods should be least effective at inhibiting bacterial growth?
A) Refrigeration: slows bacterial metabolism and growth.
B) Closing previously opened containers: prevents more bacteria from entering, and excludes O2.
C) Pickling: creates a pH at which most bacterial enzymes cannot function.
D) Canning in heavy sugar syrup: creates osmotic conditions that remove water from most bacterial cells.
E) Irradiation: kills bacteria by mutating their DNA to such an extent that their DNA-repair enzymes are overwhelmed.
Broad-spectrum antibiotics inhibit the growth of most intestinal bacteria. Consequently, assuming that nothing is done to counter the reduction of intestinal bacteria, a hospital patient who is receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics is most likely to become
A) unable to fix carbon dioxide.
B) antibiotic resistant.
C) unable to fix nitrogen.
D) unable to synthesize peptidoglycan.
E) deficient in certain vitamins and nutrients.
Haven't found what you need?
Search for quizzes and test answers now