Chapter 14 Homework

3 September 2022
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question
A commensal bacterium a. always causes disease in its host. b. isn't capable of causing disease in its host. c. is beneficial to its host. d. does not receive any benefit from its host. e. may also be an opportunistic pathogen.
answer
e. may also be an opportunistic pathogen.
question
The rise in herd immunity amongst a population can be directly attributed to a. None of the answers is correct. b. improved handwashing. c. vaccinations. d. increased use of antibiotics. e. antibiotic-resistant microorganisms.
answer
c. vaccinations.
question
Koch observed Bacillus anthracis multiplying in the blood of cattle. What is this condition called? a. systemic infection b. bacteremia c. focal infection d. local infection e. septicemia
answer
e. septicemia
question
Which of the following statements about nosocomial infections is FALSE? a. They may be caused by drug-resistant bacteria. b. They may be caused by opportunists. c. They may be caused by normal microbiota. d. The patient was infected before hospitalization. e. They occur in compromised patients.
answer
d. The patient was infected before hospitalization.
question
Which of the following is NOT a reservoir of infection? a. a sick animal b. a healthy person c. a hospital d. a sick person e. None of the answers is correct; all of these can be reservoirs of infection.
answer
e. None of the answers is correct; all of these can be reservoirs of infection.
question
Which of the following definitions is INCORRECT? a. chronic: a disease that develops slowly and lasts for months b. primary infection: an initial illness c. secondary infection: a long-lasting illness d. inapparent: infection characteristic of a carrier state e. acute: a short-lasting primary infection
answer
c. secondary infection: a long-lasting illness
question
Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms a. always occur as part of a syndrome. b. are changes observed by the physician. c. are specific for a particular disease. d. are changes felt by the patient. e. None of the answers is correct.
answer
d. are changes felt by the patient.
question
The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called a. communicable disease. b. epidemiology. c. morbidity and mortality. d. public health. e. ecology.
answer
b. epidemiology.
question
Figure 14.1 shows the incidence of influenza during a typical year. Which letter on the graph indicates the endemic level? a. d b. The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided. c. c d. b e. a
answer
a. d
question
Emergence of infectious diseases can be attributed to all of the following EXCEPT a. new strains of previously known agents. b. climatic changes. c. ease of travel. d. antibiotic resistance. e. The emergence of infectious diseases can be attributed to all of these.
answer
e. The emergence of infectious diseases can be attributed to all of these.
question
Which of the following pairs is mismatched? a. salmonellosis — vehicle transmission b. syphilis — direct contact c. None of the pairs is mismatched. d. malaria — vector e. influenza — droplet infection
answer
c. None of the pairs is mismatched.
question
Which of the following can contribute to postoperative infections? a. normal microbiota on the operating room staff b. using syringes more than once c. antibiotic resistance d. errors in aseptic technique e. All of the answers are correct.
answer
e. All of the answers are correct.
question
In Figure 14.2, when is the prevalence the highest? a. March b. July c. February d. January e. The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.
answer
c. February
question
A nosocomial infection is a. always caused by medical personnel. b. always present, but is inapparent at the time of hospitalization. c. acquired during the course of hospitalization. d. only a result of surgery. e. always caused by pathogenic bacteria.
answer
c. acquired during the course of hospitalization.
question
In which of the following diseases can gender be considered a viable predisposing factor? a. urinary tract infections b. anthrax c. salmonellosis d. pneumonia e. tetanus
answer
a. urinary tract infections
question
In which of the following patterns of disease does the patient experience no signs or symptoms? a. both incubation and convalescence b. prodromal c. decline d. convalescence e. incubation
answer
a. both incubation and convalescence
question
The major significance of Robert Koch's work is that a. microorganisms cause disease. b. diseases can be transmitted from one animal to another. c. microorganisms are present in a diseased animal. d. microorganisms can be cultured. e. microorganisms are the result of disease.
answer
a. microorganisms cause disease.
question
The yeast Candida albicans does not normally cause disease because of a. antagonistic bacteria. b. parasitic bacteria. c. other fungi. d. symbiotic bacteria. e. commensal bacteria.
answer
a. antagonistic bacteria.
question
Which of the following definitions is INCORRECT? a. endemic: a disease that is constantly present in a population b. incidence: number of new cases of a disease c. pandemic: a disease that affects a large number of people in the world in a short time d. sporadic: a disease that affects a population occasionally e. epidemic: a disease that is endemic across the world
answer
e. epidemic: a disease that is endemic across the world
question
Focal infections initially start out as a. local infections. b. bacteremia. c. systemic infections. d. septicemia. e. sepsis.
answer
a. local infections.