1. The president's expressed powers fall into five categories—military, judicial, diplomatic, executive, and legislative—that are the source of some of the most important powers on which the president can draw.
2. The position of commander in chief makes the president the highest military authority in the United States, with control of the entire military establishment. Though the president is commander in chief, only Congress can declare war. However, presidents have gone a long way in capturing this power for themselves. In 1973, Congress passed the War Powers Resolution as a response to presidential unilateralism, but it has been generally ignored by presidents.
3. The Constitution delegates to the president, as commander in chief, the obligation to protect every state against invasion and domestic violence.
4. The presidential power to grant reprieves, pardons, and amnesties allows the president to choose freedom or confinement, and even life or death for all individuals who have violated, or are suspected of having violated, federal laws, including people who directly threaten the security of the United States.
5. The power to receive representatives of foreign countries allows the president almost unconditional authority to determine whether a new ruling group can indeed commit its country to treaties and other agreements.
. The president's executive power consists of the ability to appoint, remove, and supervise all executive officers, and appoint all federal judges (with Senate approval).
. Another component of the president's power as chief executive is executive privilege—the claim that confidential communications between a president and close advisers should not be revealed without presidential consent.
8. The president's legislative power consists of the constitutional requirement to deliver a State of the Union address and the president's constitutional power to veto any acts of Congress.
9. Though not explicitly, the constitution also provides the president with the power of legislative initiative, which implies the ability to formulate proposals for important policies.
10. The president can issue executive orders, which are first and foremost simply normal tools of management: rules-setting procedures, etiquette, chains of command, functional responsibilities, and others. But evolving out of this normal management practice is a recognized presidential power to promulgate rules that have the effect and the formal status of legislation.
11. Powers given to the president by Congress are called delegated powers. Because of the expansion of government in the last century, Congress has voluntarily delegated a great deal of its own legislative authority to the executive branch.