# Week 1: Intro To IT

## Unlock all answers in this set

question
Binary: How many possible values can we have with 8 bits? 127 1 byte 8 256
256, Great job! Bits use the binary system, which is also known as the base-2 numeral system. So 2^8 allows us 256 values from 0 to 255.
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Binary: Why did UTF-8 replace the ASCII character-encoding standard?
UTF-8 can store a character in more than one byte. Wohoo! UTF-8 replaced the ASCII character-encoding standard because it can store a character in more than a single byte. This allowed us to represent a lot more character types, like emoji.
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Binary: What is the highest decimal value we can represent with a byte?
255 There are 256 values in a byte, from the decimal number 0 to 255.
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Binary:The binary value of the ASCII letter "c" is 0110 0011. Using the handy chart that we learned in the lesson, convert this number to its decimal value. You'll need to use some math for this question.
99 The decimal value 99 is same as the binary value 0110 0011. So the numbers that are turned ON are 64, 32, 2, and 1 and added up together. In other words, 64 + 32 + 2 + 1 = 99.
question
Which of these is a valid byte? Check all that apply. -11100 -10022011 -11011011 -00000000
11011011 & 00000000
question
Who invented the development of the earliest programmable loom?
Joseph Marie Jacquard, The looms took a sequence of cards with holes in them. When the loom encountered a hole, it would hook the thread underneath it. If it didn't encounter a hole, the hook wouldn't thread anything, which spun up a design pattern on the fabric. He reinvented the textile industry and shaped the world of computing.
question
It took the powerful insights of a mathematician named ---------- to realize the true potential of the analytical engine.
Ada Lovelace, She was the first to recognize the machine could be used for more than pure calculations. She developed the first algorithm for the engine, the first example of computer programming.
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A(n) ____ is a series of steps that solve specific problems.
Algorithm
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What cards had holes in them that were historically used to store data?
Punch cards
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How did Charles Baddage use punch cards?
He used them in his Analytical Engine to allow people to predefine a series of calculations they wanted to perform. As impressive as this engine was, it was still just a very advanced mechanical calculator. Until Ada Lovelace changed the GAME
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---------- was a gifted engineer who developed a series of machines that are now known as the greatest breakthrough on our way to the modern computer.
Charles Babbage, He built a Difference engine, it was a sophisticated version of some of the mechanical calculators. He was inspired by Joseph Marie Jacquard use of punch card's to automatically perform calculations instead of manually entering them by hand.
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What is the keyboard layout that most of the world uses today?
QWERTY
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What is am Abacus?
It's a wooden tool child used to play with but it's actually one of the earliest known computers. It was invented in 500 BC to count large numbers.
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Who took the first major step toward in invention of the mechanical calculator in the 17th?
Blaise Pascal "Pascal's Calculator", This device used a series of levers and gears to perform calculations automatically. This device was limited to division, subtraction, multiplication, and addition for small numbers. It paved the way for future inventors.
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Blaise Pascal's foundational operations were later used in what industry?
Textile Industry
question
History of textile industry
Before we had streamlined manufacturing, looms were used to weave yarn into fabric. -Joseph Jacquard invented the programmable loom -Charles Babbage, engineer, used his idea and created a mechanical calculator the Difference Engine -Ada Lovelace, created the first algorithm that could be programmed into the Analytical engine. This was the first example of computer programming.
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History of the development of computers
-The Abacus 500 bc -Blaise Pascal Mechanical Calculator -Joseph Jacquard invented the programmable loom -Charles Babbage, an engineer, used his idea and created a mechanical calculator the Difference Engine -Ada Lovelace, created the first algorithm that could be programmed into the Analytical engine. This was the first example of computer programming. These advances took place in 1800
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After the development of the Analytical Engine, when did the IT industry take it's next leap forward?
During World War 2, computing was crazy expensive and bulky. When the war broke out, the government poured money into computing research. They wanted to have advantages over other countries that birthed Cryptography. During the war, computers were used to process secret messages from enemies faster than a human could ever hope to do.
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--------- is the art of writing and solving codes.
Cryptography is the art of writing and solving codes. During World War 2, computers were used to process secret messages from enemies faster than a human could ever hope to do.
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What role does cryptography plays in secure communication today?
It is a critical part of computer security
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What did Alan Turing, an English mathematician and now famous computer scientist do?
He was a key part of the team that cracked the Enigma machine. The Enigma machine is just one of the examples of how governments started to recognize the potential of computation.
question
What innovation replaced the punch cards?
magnetic tape, If they dropped the deck by accident and the cards got out of order, it was almost impossible to get them sorted again. There were obviously some limitations to punch cards, but thanks to new technological innovations like magnetic tape and its counterparts, people began to store more data on more reliable media.
question
How did vacuum tube help with moving data?