opinion of individuals bound by common aims
opinion is determined by self-interest
opinion is not aroused by long periods o time
opinion is not easily changed
opinion is highly sensitive in events hat have an impact
public opinion does not anticipate—it only reacts
events of unusual magnitude are likely to swing opinion
Formal- title position
Public opinion is highly influenced by self-interest. Discuss in detail these concepts
i. Public opinion is the collective expression of opinion of many individuals bound into a group by common aims, aspirations, needs, and ideals.
ii. People who are interested in or who have a vested or self-interest of an issue—or who can be affected by the outcome of the issue—form public opinion on that particular item.
iii. Psychologically, opinion basically is determined by self-interest. Events, words, or other stimuli affect opinion only insofar as their relationship to self-interest or a general concern is apparent.
iv. Opinion does not remain aroused for a long period of time unless people feel their self-interest is acutely involved or unless opinion—aroused by words—is sustained by events.
Once self-interest is involved, opinion is not easily changed.
Public opinion is highly influenced by events. Discuss in detail these concepts.
Events of unusual magnitude are likely to swing public opinion temporarily from one extreme to the other. Opinion does not stabilize until the implication of the event Events
i. Opinion is highly sensitive to events that have an impact on the public at large or a particular segment of the public.
ii. By and large, public opinion does not anticipate events. It only reacts to them.
iii. Events trigger formation of public opinion. Unless people are aware of an issue, they are not likely to be concerned or have an opinion about it. Awareness and discussion lead to crystallizing of opinions and often a consensus among the public.
why are the opinion leaders important in the formation of public opinion?
Public is apathetic
They are knowledgeable & articulate
Ppl tend to follow
a. They serve as catalysts.
b. People seldom make a decision on their own but are influenced by their friends, parents, educators, supervisors, church leaders, physicians, public officials, movie stars or singers, and the media in general. Public relations professionals attempt to influence these leaders just as they seek to influence the public at large.
c. (Opinion leaders: formal - title, position; informal - knowledgeable Beyoncé, Rush Limbaugh)
Explain the agenda setting theory in public formation
By selection they trigger public discussion of issues
They help form opinion for those with no background
There is a danger in this, if they are over attempts to influence public opinion this is not traditional journalism
Overt efforts to influence
Media, through the selection of stories and headlines, tell the public what to think about, although not necessarily what to think.—there is danger in this and overt efforts to influence, they help form opinion with no background information)
How do you monitor public opinion?
Media reports- public relations are avid consumers of media
Field reports: what are they telling you?
How many letters or telephone calls do u get about a hot topic?
Advisory committee- getting advise
Have to be alert, how to react: Cali Med. Fruit Fly problem
Letters and telephone calls,
Ex. California Med. Fruit fly problem
1. Changes/Neutralize hostile opinions (most difficult to accomplish)
2. Crystallize latent opinions (an opinion ppl have but it's not on the surface) & positive attitudes.
3. Conserve favorable opinions-reinforcements
Name the 8 factors involved in effective persuasion
1. Audience Analysis- tailor the message
2. Source Credibility- something that is believable
o some aspects of credibility is: expertise, sincerity, charisma (sex appeal, you have some charm)
o using celebrities to endorse your product
o pre-reputation rubs off, attract attention
o con-too many endorsements, contradictions
3. Appeal of Self interest- Psychologist named Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs:
o First level- basics of needs
o Second level- security
o Third level- feeling of belonging
o Fourth level- the need to be loved
o When you reach all these levels you reached your maximum ***
4. Clarity of Message i. Messages are direct, simply expressed, and contain only one primary idea.
5. Timing and Context: sending out a message about how to save money during the cold; send out a message after first bill
6. Audience Participation- getting ur audience involved is important because it represents commitment & belonging
7. Suggestions for Action- give your people data, furnish them with something that calls for some type of action
8. Content and structure of messages
i. A number of techniques can be used to make a message more persuasive
3. Surveys & Polls
6. Mass media Endorsements
7. Emotional Appeals
Name 5 of the ethical responsibilities of a person who uses persuasion techniques.
1. DON'T use false/fabricated evidence to support arguments or claims
2. DON'T represent yourself as an "expert" on a subject you are not
3. DON'T advocate something that you don't believe in yourself
4. DON'T pretend certainty when tentativeness & degrees of probability are more accurate
5. DON'T oversimplify complex situations into simplistic, two-valued views/choice.
There are 7 devices:
• Plain Folks- where u portray yourself as ordinary which ppl can identify with
• Testimonimal- get someone with credibility
• Bandwagon approach
• Card stacking- neg, politicians use a lot (crosses the line)
• Transfer- get a well known person to endorse your products ex: u can lose 50 lbs just like this person
• Glittering generalities: if u like baseball if u like hot pies then obviously your going to drive a chevorla
• Name calling
What 7 techniques can be used to write persuasive messages?
i. Everyone likes a good story—get the audience's attention
i. People are impressed by statistics
c. Surveys and Polls
i. Use of the results of surveys and polls to show that they are first in "customer satisfaction", etc.
i. A statement of opinion can be more persuasive if some examples are given
i. These are usually statements by a person who is a satisfied customer
i. Given by celebrities who are paid to say nice things about the organization, product, or service
g. Emotional Appeals
i. Appeals to protect animals, for example. Something that rises emotions.
What are three factors involved in source credibility?
i. Does the audience perceive the person as an expert on the subject?
i. Does the person come across as believing what he or she is saying?
Is the individual attractive, self-assured, and articulate, projecting an image of competence and leadership
What are some guidelines for developing a communications campaign for multicultural audiences?
-organize a team who knows the customs and values of various demographic groups
-Understand that people respond better to messages that at culturally relevant
-consumers of diverse products are loyal (life time usually)
-use primary language of the audience
-use spokesperson that represents the audience
Support for single issues
Emphasis on personality
Distrust of authority
Public relations practitioners are cautioned not to think of audience as monolithic, but as very diverse. Why?
• differences in geography, history, economics
• Ethnicity, generational differences, socio-economic status
How can technology be used to segment audiences?
Public relations campaigns are designed to reach specific audiences that are defined by age, gender, income, and lifestyle. Technology compiles related valuable information about target audiences. Through things like geographic and social statistics, data on automobile registrations, voter registrations, sales figures, mailing lists, and church and organization membership can be merged into computer databases.
• Computers used for research
• Census Bureau stats
• The internet
Why are women considered an important audience for PR and marketing personnel? ***
-important audience for retailers and manufacturers -constituted 50% of PR/marketing workforce
-spend most of family disposable income
-heavily involved in social networking
What is the fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States?
• Hispanics 54 million 16% / 25% BY 2015 - 130 Million
• Significant buying power $ 863 billion
2,453 Hispanic media outlets
1,200 print/ 1,000 TV and Radio
Radio use 13% higher than general population
Univision, Telemundo, Telefutura
Cultural values of minorities:
• Strong family ties, music, food, religion
• Brand loyalty
• Language is important
What racial/ethnic group has the highest median income and percentage of college degrees?
• Asians Americans
• Family income $66,000
• 50% over 25 have an undergraduate degree
What are some characteristics of Millennials, also called the E-Generation? Describe the characteristics of Teenagers.
o 80% want brands to entertain them
o 65% Recycle
o 40% A celebrity Endorsement important
o 46% Purchase if charity involved
o 53% social media sites important
o 44% get their news via internet/ 24% newspaper
o 49% identify as Hispanics
o 51% use mobile phones for social media
o Consumers of media/ On-line (most relationships online)
o Reserved in social skills- savvy in chat
o No tolerance for Archaic systems
Born after 1980-they entered the workforce at the start of the 21st century.
· They will spend equal time interacting with friends online and in person
· Initial interaction online will precede most dating and marriages
· They will spend more time online that in interaction with parents by tenfold
· They will be more reserved in social skills
· They will be savvy and skeptical about online identities such as chat participants
· They will not tolerate print forms, slow application processes, or archaic systems
· Parents still rule when it comes to advice about careers and drugs, and even for product decisions
· Trust in information is derived from relationships
· The top five sources of advice are parents, doctors, clergy, friends, and teachers
· As avid and skilled Internet users, millennials remain savvy about unfiltered and medium for them
· Publicity for products and issues will include millennials, whether messages are directed at them or at those to whom they look for advice.
What is the baby boomer generation, and what are some of this groups characteristics?
• Grew up in an age of prosperity
• Rebellious generation: hippies
• Health care, insurance, retirement, investing
• Active, socially conscious
Age group born between 1946-1964, represents the tidal wave of Americans born after WW2 when thousands of GI's returned home and started raising families.
-grew up in an age of prosperity
-health, car insurance, retirement investing
Why is the senior audience so important? What are some characteristics of this audience?
• Growing audience
• Vote in greater numbers
• Excellent source of volunteers (more involved than others)
• Less easily convinced
• Like to travel
• Extremely health conscious
• More discretionary income
-still prefer traditional media, like daily newspaper and TV news
-30% more TV watched & 25% more daily newspaper read than average U.S. adult
-less easily convinced than young adults
-demand value in the things they buy
-pay little attention to fads
What are some characteristics of the gay/lesbian community?
16 million/ medium income $65,000
$759 billion bran loyalty **
"one size does not fit all"
Describe the following (1) Evangelical Christians, (2) The Jewish Community, (3) The Muslim Community, (4) The Disabled Community
(1) Evangelical Christians:
• One element/ family values/ prayer in schools
• Conservative in politics/ against gay marriage
• Anti-Abortion/ against Planned Parenthood
(2) The Jewish:
• More liberal on social issues/ tend to vote Democrat
• Powerful lobby/ good fund raisers
• Well organized
(3) The Muslim Community:
• Good spending power
• Struggle to overcome the stereotype
(4) The Disabled Community:
• Very diverse
• More aggressive for their rights, try to force the government to accommodate to their disability
• Often in denial
How can a public relations person take precautions to avoid libel suits?
• Opinion statements be accompanied by the facts on which the opinions are based
• Statements of opinion be clearly labeled as such
• The context of the language surrounding the expression of opinion be reviewed for possible legal implications
When the media call about an employee, what kinds of information should the public relations person provide? What other approaches can be used?
• name, title, dates of beginning and ending
• no other information / arrange a meeting
What is "fair comment"?
• The concept of fair comment and criticism means that companies and individuals voluntarily display their wares to the public for sale or consumption, they have no real recourse against criticism done with honest purpose and lack of malicious intent.
When companies and individuals voluntarily display their wares to the public for sale and consumption, they have no real recourse against criticism done with honest purpose and lack of malicious intent.
· Anyone offering goods
· Issue of public concerns
· Be careful
· Corporate reputation can be damaged but it is difficult to prove
· Keep up with the changing law!
What rights do photographers and freelance writers have regarding ownership of their works
• Photos retain ownership
• Writers must negotiate
What precautions should a public relations person take to avoid invasion-of-privacy suits?
· Employee communication
· Photo releases
· Product publicity and advertising
· Media inquires about employees
· Focus on organizations
· Be careful about personals
· Double check
· Will this embarrass?
· Employees initial drafts
· No second hand info
• focus on organization
• be careful about personals
• double check
• will this embarrass?
• Employees initial drafts
• No second hand info
Photos for advertising
Implied consent- employee poses and told their photo will be used
If used for promotion or advertising make a signed release that they did it
What should public relations people know about the regulations of the Federal Trade Commission? Identify at least four guidelines.
• PR people should know that the commission has jurisdiction over product news releases and other forms of publicity, such as videos and brochures.
o Make sure the information is accurate and can be substantiated
o Stick to the facts.
o Make sure celebrities or others who endorse the product actually use it
o Watch the language
o Provide proper context for statements and statistics attributed to government agencies.
o Describe tests and surveys in sufficient detail so the consumer understands what was tested under what conditions.
o Remember that a product is not "new" if only the packaging has been changed or the product is more than six months old.
o When comparing products or services with a competitor's, make certain you can substantiate your claims.
o Avoid misleading or deceptive product demonstrations.
What is copyright and what does it protect? What does the law presume regarding automatic copyright?
-protects literary, musical, dramatic, pictural, graphic, and sculptural
-law presumes that material is copyrighted from the moment it is created
-excerpts- research, teaching, fair comment
-infringement is reprinting or producing the entire work without permission
they wanna sell their book for profit
ex: bill dean using someone else's ideas to teach from
· What organizational materials should be copyrighted?
· How to utilize the copyrighted material of others correctly?
· Copyright is the protection of a creative work from unauthorized use
· Protects literary, musical, dramatic, pictorial, graphic, sculptural
· Does not protect ideas
· Law presumes that material is copyrighted from the moment it is created
· Life of the author plus 70 years
· Organization- 95 years
· Full legal protection requires registration
· Excerpts: research, teaching, fair comment
· Infringement is reprinting or reproducing the entire work without permission
· Use deprives sales
· Use for profit
What is "misappropriation of personality"?
· Sound alikes and look alikes
· Must get permission and pay a licensing fee
· Federal Trade Commission
-Jurisdiction over deceptive or misleading advertising or release
The Securities and Exchange speech?
Full information must be given on anything that affects price
Timely disclosure of major developments
Insider trading illegal
Why should public relations practitioners be concerned about employee speech?
-Companies can and do get sued for what their employees do online
-Office workers who access inappropriate material online can cause problems
-Encourage employees to blog but establish guidelines
Do companies have the right to read the email of employees?
Yes, they are company property!
What can u do to stay out of trouble? Work together, pr must realize leal ramifications, legal must realize importance of PR
What is a trademark and what are the 3 basic guidelines whereby a PR professional can help an organization protect its trademarks?*
Trademarks are adjectives/ not pluralized-never verbs
-PR helps: proper use, failure to capitalize can cause jeopardy, monitor media use, educate employees
In general the president of a major company is not consider a "public figure" unless he or she does something to make themselves a public figure
What is the concept of CSR, and why is it important to today's corporations? What is the role of public relations professionals in CSR?
The concept of CSR (corporate social responsibility) is for executives and their public relations staff, charged with improving the reputation and citizenship of their employees. Important to todays corporations to adopt ethical principles, pursue transparency & disclosure, and make trust a fundamental precept of corporate governance. Role of PR professionals in CSR is counseling the CEO, serves as a link between the chief executive and the realities of public opinion in the marketplace.
• Adopt ethical principles
• Transparency/ disclosure
• Ward off government regulation
Corporate executives indicate that they are wary of the media. What reasons do they give? Journalists are critical of business executive. What are their complaints?
Corporate executives are wary of the media because of inaccuracy, incomplete coverage, inadequate research and preparation for interviews, and an antibusiness bias. Journalists complain their inability to obtain direct access to decision making executives which forces them to rely on news releases. Also many company executives, uncooperative and wary, erect barriers against them.
• They feel that it is inaccurate, incomplete, biased
• Media response: they don't have open access
• Be open and accessible
• Eddie Bauer: two black teens were accused of stealing a shirt (one of them was wearing the shirt) basically when the mother found out, she showed the receipt that proved they purchased the shirt. What was Eddie Bauer's response? THEY HAD NO RESPONSE AT ALL! So, the mother took this to the media. (Washington post)
• Eddie Bauer hires Hill & Knowlton to fix this mess.
Why is it important for companies to consider diversity in their marketing and public relations strategies?
Because as racial and ethnic minorities continue to increase in number and become more affluent (uh-flu-ent), they will constitute a larger share of the consumer marketplace.
• 12.5 African American/14.5 Hispanic/ 4.1 Asian
• U.S is becoming more diverse
• Dissatisfaction: Shoddy Goods, Poor sevices
• Ralph Nadar
• Study groups
• Gov protection
• Boycott/ government Bureaucracy
• Tyson Food and PETA
• KFC (how they slaughter their chickens), Coca Cola (child obsesity), Mcdonalds (super size me documentary)
How should a company react to charges and allegations from activist groups such as PETA. What should you do and what shouldn't you do?
What you should do: work with groups who are interested in solutions than getting publicity, offer transparency activists who feel you're not
open aren't likely to keep dealing with you, and turn their suggestions into action. Activists want results.
• Work with the reasonable groups
• Be open
What you shouldn't do: get emotional when dealing with advocacy groups, agree to work with anyone making threats, and expect immediate results. Working with adversaries takes patience-establishing trust takes time.
• Don't get emotional
• Yield to threats (don't give in to threats)
Why is employee relations so important to a company's image and reputation? List employee policies of Fortune's best 100 companies.
Because a company that respects its management, has pride in its products, and believes it is being treated fairly is a key factor to corporate success.
100 percent of the 100 best companies offer telecommuting, versus 57 percent companies nationwide, 100 percent of the 100 best offer paid maternity leave, versus 16 percent nationwide, 98 percent of the 100 best offer health screening programs, versus 45 percent nationwide, 96 percent of the 100 best offer on-site seasonal flu vaccinations, versus 61 percent nationwide, and 93 percent of the 100 best offer nutrition counseling, versus 20 percent nationwide.
• Treat your employees well (doesn't mean u have to give in to every wish and whim and employee has)
• Create a good work place
• Fortune's 100 best practices
• Employee assistance
• Child care
• Compressed work weeks
• Job sharing
• Elder care resource
• Concerns of employees:
o Health insurance
o Social issues such as aids, drugs, no smoking, sexual harassment, day care
How should a company tell its employees about a layoff?
Employees should be informed by an immediate supervisor not over email. Layoff is never announced over media. Companies that are interested in their reputation and employee trust must also make every effort to cushion the layoff by implementing various programs.
• Inform employees first
• One on one
• Cushion the layoff: bring in a team that makes these employees aware of other job opportunity
Give some examples of product publicity and product placement.
Product placement: the Mercedes Benz that takes the characters in the movie to the airport, the United Airlines flight that takes them to a destination, the Hilton where they stay, and the Grey Goose they drink at the bar.
o Food and Wine Magazine (sexiest food survey)
o Old Bay
o Briggs and Stratton did a blog go ten beautiful homes
o Hershey Foods worlds largest kiss
o Clorox 5 worst cocroach invested homes
o Cars in movies and tv shows
o Grey goose vodka at the bar
o Or star of show getting in nice car in front of hotel?
o Ex: castaway, FEDEX got a lot of publicty because their name was in the movie (plane that crashes)
What is cause-related marketing? Give some examples. What cautions should be used?
Cause-related marketing is when companies in highly competitive fields, where there is little differentiation among products or services, strive to stand out and enhance their reputation. Means that a profit-making company collaborates with a nonprofit organization to advance the latter's cause, and at the same time, increase the former's sales.
Cautions that should be used: look for a cause related to your products or services or that exemplifies a product's quality, consider causes that appeal to your primary customers, choose a charity that doesn't already have multiple sponsors, choose a local organization if the purpose is to build brand awareness for local franchises, don't use cause-related efforts as a tactic to salvage your image after a major scandal; it usually backfires, understand the association with a cause or nonprofit is a long term commitment, and realize that additional budget must be spent to create public awareness and build brand recognition with the cause.
• Collaboration with a non-profit
• Yoplait- cancer research
• Spurs: where black and gray give back, work w/ st. Judes
• Dannon- national wildfire federation
• Small business Saturday- after thanksgiving
Why is corporate sponsorship of concerts, festivals, and even the Olympics considered a good marketing and public relations strategy
Sponsoring events offer four benefits: they enhance the reputation and image of the reputation and image of the sponsoring company through association, they give the product brands high visibility among key purchasing publics, they provide a focal point for marketing efforts and sales campaigns, and they generate publicity and media coverage.
• Enhance image
• Give product brans high visibility
• Focal point for marketing
• Media coverage/ publicity
Discuss corporate philanthropy. List 7 benefits to a corporation
Corporate philanthropy is the donation of funds, products, and services to various causes.
$18 billion (2012)
Cash - food - clothing
Loan of employees
6% of $316 billion dollars that Is given every year
the idea is to help people
not for publicity
The 7 benefits:
* Strengthened reputation and brand recognition
* Increased media opportunities
* Improved community and government relations
* Facilitation of employee recruitment and retention
* Enhanced marketing
* Access to research and development
* Increased corporate profitability
ideas cannot be copyrighted
Slander is a published false allegation or statement that damages a person's reputation
under the "fair use" doctrine a teacher can reprint several chapters to teach a class
a company trademark must be capitalized at all times
If an employee appears in a company advertisement without his or her written permission, this is called
Which federal agency regulates and policies product claims in advertising and product publicity
FTC (federal trade commission)
Which of the following is the best way for PR and legal staffs to work together?
both should be represented on key committees and report the same executive
For assisting an employee or client to carry out an illegal action one could be charged with
the tern infringement relates to
quoting copyrighted material illegally
Was the coverage of Michael Jackson's death excessive?
Yes, it was reported that in 24 hours after his death 60% of the total news was devoted to his death, his life story, and his legacy.
Coverage skipped stories on health care reform, major political violence in Iran, and the greenhouse gas bill.
Give some figures or statistics verifying that the industries of entertainment, sports, and tourism are important segments of the American economy
-More than 1.4 billion movie tickets sold, generating almost $11 billion in revenues
-About 30 million attended concerts, Bruce Springsteen and the E. Steet Band tour generated $200 million in revenues and attendance of 2.1 million
-NASCAR had attendance of 3.6 million and generated $3 billion in revenues
-More than 17 million attended NFL games and the football conglomerate reported revenues of $9.5 billion
-The cruise ship industry adds $40 billion annually to the U.S. economy and creates and 350,000 jobs
-Tourism generates nearly 10 percent of the global gross product and is projected to represent on in every ten jobs by 2022.
What constitutes a celebrity a celebrity in today's society? What are roles of publicist and media in creating celebrities?
A person well known in one or a wide variety of fields such as science, politics, or entertainment. People want to know everything about celebrities and the media and publicists provide this information to the public.
· Self- glorification
The publicist promotes image and recognition
Give some reasons why the public is fascinated with personal lives of celebrities or develops strong attachments to sports teams?
Movie stars are portrayed to live glamorous and wealthy lives and people dream to live like them
Athletes performances are emphasized and it creates young athletes to look up to them
Sports enthusiast develop a vicarious sense of belonging that creates support for their team, especially when tey are winning
desire of entertainment
What is cause-related marketing? What are some examples?
A profit making company collaborates with a nonprofit organization to advance the latter's cause and, at the same time, increase, the former's sales.
-Yoplait yogurt, which tells customers that, 10 cents will be donated to support breast caner research for each pink Yoplait lid customers send in.
-America Express, raising money to restore the aging Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island.
If you worked in sports PR for a team, what kind of duties would you have on daily basis?
Prepare media kits
write bios on players
wine and dine reporters
arrange media interviews
book player appearance on TV and radio shows
handle crisis when players break the law
maintain team website
write a team blog
provide constant updates for fans on social media (extremely important)
form good community relations
Describe the work of an entertainment publicist
Their primary job is to generate publicity for a film, concert, or an individual star, they are often called upon to do "damage control" when a celebrity runs afoul of the law or makes an ill-considered statement.
· Getting publicity in the media
· Minimizing misbehavior
· Handling the misquote
· Reporters resent this
· Replay the tape
· Acknowledge a slip up
· Ethics: Tell the truth/ Suggest a low profile
· Prepare a statement
A publicist's primary responsibility is getting publicity in the media about his or her organization or client
Create news releases
Dreamed up creative stunts to get publicity
What are the 3 phases of promoting a tourism destination?
-Stimulating public's desire to visit a place
-Arranging for the travelers to reach it
-Making certain that visitors are comfortable, well treated, and entertained when they get there
What facts and figures show that global tourism is now a major industry?
Tourism accounts for 9% of the global gross domestic product (about 10% of GDP in the US and about 15% in Spain)
Will represents 10% of world's workers by 2022
Tourism is described as a volatile business, what kind of threats and crisis do PR personnel have to cope with when crises occur?
Mexican tourist officials have to continue to lure in tourists even when media keeps covering the violence of the drug cartels
Attract tourists to the Ameican gulf coast even after oil spill occurred in the gulf
Alaskan tourism officials had to calm the public after the eruption of Mount Redoubt
Briefly discuss the Tiger Woods sex scandal. PR professionals criticized him for failing to do what?
Woods was an in automobile accident on Thanksgiving weekend of 2009, where Woods' wife Elin Nodegren was reported to have used a golf club to break a window in his Cadillac Escalade to rescue an unconscious Woods. Rumors began circulating that alcohol was not involved, & instead that a marital dispute was the accident's causer. The media dubbed "Escalade escapade" was blown up once Tiger dropped out of a tournament benefiting his Tiger Woods Foundation—and news reports of his infidelity began to surface.
-PR professionals criticized him for stonewalling the media and not taking control of the situation within the first 24 hours.
How well did carnival cruise handle the situation when 4000 passengers went without AC toilets for 5 days?
Tug boats deployed to gulf of Mexico to tow the disabled ship to Mobile, Alabama, but that didnt alleviate sanitary
Passengers posted on social media
Journalisnt jumped on it
Carnival communicated during the ordeal using news releases, news conferences, and postings on social media platforms. facebook page
It was announced that the passengers would receive a full refund, $500 in compensation and discounts on future Carnival cruises. CEO Garry Cahill also issued a lengthy apology on Carnival's Facebook page.
What is the process for developing a publicity campaign for a personality,
discuss all four steps.
Interview the Client: the client should answer a detailed personal questionnaire. The practitioner should be a dogger, probing interviewer, digging for interesting and possibly newsworthy facts about the person's life, activities, and beliefs.
Prepare a Biography: should be limited to four typed pages, perhaps fewer. News and feature angles should be placed near the top of the "bio", as it is termed, so an editor or producer can find them quickly.
Plan a Marketing Strategy: Practitioner should determine precisely what is to be marketed. Is the purpose only to increase public awareness of the individual, or is it to publicize the client's product such as a new television series, motion picture, or book. Then the practitioner should decide which audiences are the most important to reach.
Conduct the Campaign: The best course is to schedule the client on multiple media simultaneously. Radio and television appearances create public awareness and often make newspaper feature stories easier to obtain
what are the basic purposes and functions of government relations?
Ideally, the government is public service; no one makes private profit directly from the operation of governments, and governments are noncommercial. However, in order for federal, state, and local governments to function efficiently, each branch needs to communicate effectively with its constituents. From election campaigns to military recruitment to floating a bond issue, a common thread runs through governmental public relations: the circulation of information. Skilled professionals at every level ensure that information is disseminated clearly, efficiently, and to the widest number of people.
what is the difference between someone working in corporate public affairs (government relations) and a lobbyist?
Most campaigns to influence impending legislation have multiple levels. One level is informing and convincing the public about the correctness of an organization's viewpoint (public affairs).
On the other level, lobbyists are aimed at the defeat, passage, or amendment of legislation and regulatory agency policies.
What are the major points of Lobbying Reform Act?
One key provision was an expanded definition of who is considered to be a "lobbyist." ('95 law: "someone hired to influence lawmakers, government officials or their aides, and who spends at least 20% of his/her time representing any client in a six-month period") Another key provision requires lobbyists to register with Congress and disclose their clients, the issue areas in which lobbying is being done, and roughly how much is being paid for it. Violators face civil fines of up to $50,000. One area exempted from the lobby reform bill is financial disclosures for so-called grassroots lobbying.
Describe the term "influence peddling."
Influence peddling is the illegal practice of using one's influence in government or connections with persons in authority to obtain favors or preferential treatment for another, usually in return for payment.
Describe the different facets of grassroots lobbying.
There are virtually no rules or regulations. The tools for this kind of lobbying are advocacy advertising, toll-free phone lines, bulk faxing, websites, and computerized direct mail aimed at generating phone calls and letters from the public to Congress, the White House, and governmental regulatory agencies. It also involves coalition building; to get individuals and groups with no financial interest in the issue to speak on the sponsor's behalf. The premise is that letters and phone calls from private citizens are more influential than arguments from vested interests.
Describe public information activities in the following areas: The White House, Congress, federal agencies, state governments, local governments.
White Houseà the apex of public relations efforts occur here. All Presidents have taken advantage of the intense media interest to implement P.R. strategies to improve popularity, generate support for programs, and explain embarrassing policy decisions. Examples: Speeches, staged events, talk shows press conferences, campaign rallies.
Congressà House and Senate are huge disseminators of information using things like news releases, newsletters, recordings, brochures, taped radio interviews, e-mails, electronic newsletters, and videos.
Federal Agenciesà answer press and public inquiries, write newsletters, work on newsletters, prepare speeches for top officials, oversee the production of brochures, and plan special events.
State Governmentsà develop campaigns to encourage tourism, publicizing quality of life issues, provides an array of public relations services, public information and education campaigns, health and safety campaigns, and advertising and public relations campaigns.
Local Governmentsà information flow occurs in many ways through government services. EX: city council holds neighborhood meetings; the airport commission sets up an exhibit showing the growth needs of the airport; the recreation department promotes summer swimming lessons; the city's human rights commission sponsors a festival promoting multiculturalism
Discuss the advantages and the downside to using the Internet and social media in election campaigns.
Advantages Internet used for:
· Campaign fund-raising and building grassroots support in 2000 election
· In '04 election, the Internet was used to build a grassroots network, motivate potential voters, and raise funds.
· Interact with constituents
· Obama used it to build support among college students, young professionals, and independents.
· Candidates surrender some measure of control over the message and discussion.
· Any gaffes are instantly amplified.
· Constant vigilance is needed to rebut gossip and misinformation
Describe the criticisms aimed at President Obama and his response during the BP gulf disaster.
· Slow to respond in any serious and concerted manner after the blowout and spread of oil
· Unemotional tone when discussing the environmental disaster and the economic impact
· No direct talks with BP, not even by telephone, for seven weeks after the spill began
· Expressed that there was no real point in communicating with BP
· Stereotyping by Obama of the oil industry and business executives as always telling the public what it wants to hear
· Calling for a drilling moratorium in the Gulf, which would compound job loss and economic catastrophe
· Mandating a freeze by BP of all dividend payments to shareholders, which earned immediate backlash from British pundits and officials looking out for the interests of British pensioners counting on BP payments.
Discuss the government's efforts to promote President Bush's "No Child Left Behind Act" and ethical problems that ensued.
The Department of Education paid the public relations firm Ketchum $1 million to produce and distribute video news releases that promoted the programs and evaluate media coverage. However, Ketchum was paying conservative commentator Armstrong Williams $240,000 to promote the NCLB Act in his TV and radio appearances. Many questioned what appeared to be an illegal promotion to gain a political advantage. The Government Accounting Office ruled that Ketchum had failed to openly acknowledge the government's role in the production of the NCLB video news releases and that, as such, the VNRs were covert propaganda.
There is a decline is the support for education by the government.
Long letters are OK in solicitations.
Writing for a second gift is ok.
In bond elections governmental bodies should use citizens to lead the campaign.
Interview stories for public relations purposes should be approved by the interviewee.
What percentage of stories in a newspaper come from news releases?
The most visible public relations unit at a University is the Publications bureau.
In a capital campaign you first survey to determine the level of support you have.
Volunteer service agencies have had their workload increased due to the cutback of government welfare.
What is a pitch letter?
How to get your story noticed? The answer is what is commonly known in the public relations industry as the pitch. Some of today's savvy social media practitioners think pitching is an archaic concept because it implies one-way communication.
the email remains the most popular used method to pitch a story
call attention to journalist/blogger - email/call to get more info or set up interview
A researched and creative story idea about their employer or client via telephone calls, emails, texts or tweets that will ultimately appeal to the journalist/editor.
What is a PSA?
unpaid announcement promoting gov program or voluntary agency that serve public interest
-educate and build awarenes
What is a blog?
A regularly updated website or web page, typically run by an individual or small group that is written in an informal or conversational style
What is a satellite media tour?
one on one interview
series of journalists and TV hosts - seen on network tv
Technique used by corporations (primarily) to provide an "expert" of their choosing to local television news broadcasts for often-live interaction with the goal of getting out of a specific message
What is a B-roll?
additional soundbites and views the tv staff can use when repacking the story - must attribute to original source
Technique of using the cutaway common to hide zooms, where the visuals may cut away to (term) footage of what the person is talking about while the A Camera zooms in, then cuts back after the zoom is complete
What is the first thing you should make sure of before conducting a news conference?
1. Define the message
2. ask "Should we hold a news conference or not?"
Compare radio listening vs. TV viewing.
Radio- 92% listen
12 yrs+ 150 million
Commute time 50 min.
TV- 150 million
Network- 30 million
cable- 34 million
-Radio news release is written for the ear. The emphasis is on strong, short sentences that average about 10 words and can be easily understood by a listener
-radio: reaches about 80%
What is an annual report?
- Required by SEC
Details companies activities throughout the year
What is a sound bite?
a short extract from an interview
What is the primary source of news for 70% of the public?
Are face-to-face meetings important today?
How long should a cocktail party last?
2 hours at most - most stand or sit
What are the advantages of using a celebrity for a promotional event?
-call attention to the product or service
-Increased audience and publicity
-Get to know their needs/demands/personality so they will do what you hired them and need them to do.
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