# Chapter 3

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Which of the following measures show how scores differ from the mean?
variability
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Which of the following is not a measure of variability?
mean measures are: range, standard deviation, variance
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In order to calculate the variance, which of the following must you know?
mean if you know the standard deviation of a set of scores you know the variance
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What is another term for variability?
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What are the three tools used to assess variability?
range, standard deviation, variance
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Which measure of variability is easiest to calculate?
range
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Which measure of variability is most general, and hence least useful?
range
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Which measure of variability should never be used alone to reach conclusions regarding the variance of a distribution?
range
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Which measure of variability is a measure of the average distance from the mean?
standard deviation
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What is the range for the following set of scores: 29, 48, 22, 37, 55?
55-22=33
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What is the range for the following set of scores: 34, 14, 17, 57, 22?
43
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What is the range for the following set of scores: 117, 249, 326, 47, 442?
395
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If you have a lowest score of 21 and a range of 47, your highest score will be:
68
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Which of the following measures how different scores are from one particular score?
variability
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What is the most common measure of variability?
standard deviation
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When reporting descriptive data such as the Mean, what additional information should also be reported that expresses how different the scores are in the distribution?
( averages and variability)
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If you subtract the smallest number in the distribution from the largest, what type of variability is being calcuated?
range
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In the formula for computing the range, what does the letter "h" represent?
highest score in the data set
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In the formula for computing the range, what does the letter "l" represent?
lowest score in the data set
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This is used to represent the range:
r
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The highest score minus the lowest score is equal to:
the exclusive range r=h-l
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The highest score minus the lowest score plus one is equal to
the inclusive range r=h-l+1
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In the formula for calculating the standard deviation, what does the Greek letter ""sigma represent?
find the sum of what follows ( summation)
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In the formula for calculating the variance, what does the letter "n" represent?
sample size
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When calculating the standard deviation, what must be done in order to obtain an unbiased estimate?
subtract 1 from n n-1
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Which of the following sets of scores has the greatest variability?
7,10,11,15,19
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Which of the following sets of scores has the least variability?
5,4,5,6,5
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Variability is a measure of how much individual scores differ from the ______________.
mean
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What is the formula for calculating the exclusive range?
r= h-l
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What is the formula for calculating the inclusive range?
r= h-l+1
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The sum of the absolute value of the deviations from the mean divided by the number of scores is equal to:
mean deviation ( also called the mean absolute deviation)
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The sum of the deviations from the mean will always be equal to ______________.
zero (0)
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What is obtained by squaring the standard deviation
we get rid rid of the negative sign so that when we do eventually sum them, they do not add up to 0
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What is obtained by taking the square of the variance?
the same units with which we originally started
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Which of the following is one way to represent the standard deviation?
S or SD
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Which of the following is one way to represent the variance?
s2=sigma ( x-x)2/ n-1 2.342 or 5.48
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Unbiased estimates are described as:
when we subtract 1 from n page 43
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Unbiased estimates
page 43
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What is the range for the following set of scores: 10,15,12,18,19,16,12?
9
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What is the standard deviation for the following set of scores: 10,15,12,18,19,16,12?
3.36
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What is the variance for the following set of scores: 10,15,12,18,19,16,12?
11.28
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What is the range for the following set of scores: 20,24,26,22,18,16,18?
10
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What is the standard deviation for the following set of scores: 20,24,26,22,18,16,18?
3.60
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What is the variance for the following set of scores: 20,24,26,22,18,16,18?
12.935
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Which of the following sets of data has no variability?
the one with less change between numbers ex 4,4,4,4
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What is the square of the standard deviation?
is step #4 page 41 ?? variance
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What is the square root of the variance?
simply the standard deviation squared s2=s x s
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If (X-M)=235, and n = 29, what is "s"?
2.85???
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Which of the following must also be known in order to compute the standard deviation?
mean
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Biased estimates can be used:
only to describe the characteristics of the sample
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Unbiased estimates can be used:
if you intend to use the sample as an estimate of a population parameter
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When using sample estimates to estimate population parameters, you should use:
unbiased statistic
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As your sample size grows larger, the n-1 adjustment for the standard deviation has a:
unbiased estimate force the standard deviation to be larger
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the less of a difference there is between the biased and the unbiased estimates of the standard deviation.
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If n = 24 and s = 1.56, what is the variance?
2.43????
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If you have a variance of 9, your standard deviation will be:
3 square root of 9
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The variance is more difficult to interpret than the standard deviation
false
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Unbiased estimates are considered to be less conservative estimates.
false?? page 43
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The standard deviation is sensitive to extreme scores.
true
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The exclusive range is more commonly used in research articles as compared with the inclusive range.
true
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A greater standard deviation indicates less variance.