Unit 8 Progress Check: FRQ

25 July 2022
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FRQ#1
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(a) Describe what scientists mean when they refer to an ecological community such as that shared by the leopards and lions.
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- The response indicates that an ecological community refers to all of the interacting populations in a defined habitat. (Additional information: Of particular interest in describing the structure of a community is the species diversity, all of the different species present, and the species composition, the total number of organisms of each species.)
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(b) Using the template, construct an appropriately labeled graph to represent the data in Table 1. Based on the data, determine the most common size of the leopards' prey animals and the most common size of the lions' prey animals.
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- The y-axis should be labeled "Percent of Prey." The x-axis should be labeled "Size of Animal Prey." - The response indicates that medium-sized animals are the leopards' most common prey. It also indicates that based on error bars, large and very large animals are equally likely to be the lions' most common prey.
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(c) Based on the data in Figure 1, describe whether or how the size of the leopard population appears to have been affected by the lion population over the period for which data were analyzed. The scientists also estimated the consumed biomass of the prey animals of the leopards and lions. They estimated that the lions annually ate a total of approximately 175,000 kg of prey animals. This included approximately 110,000 kg of very large animals. Calculate, to the nearest whole number, the percent of the total biomass eaten by the lions that is composed of very large animals.
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- The response indicates that there are fluctuations, but overall the leopard population size appears to have been unaffected by the lion population size. (Additional information: At different time points, only one of the two populations increased or decreased in size, and at other time points, they both increased or decreased in size. Therefore the best conclusion is that the two population sizes changed independently of each other.) - The response indicates that the percent of the total biomass that is composed of very large animals is 63%. 110,000/175,000 = 0.63 = 63%
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(d) Based on the data in Table 1 and the biomass of the very large animals eaten by the lions, predict the likely effect on both the lions and leopards if the availability of the very large animals becomes limiting in the reserve. After analyzing the data, the scientists claim that the leopards and lions coexist in the reserve through the use of niche partitioning. Use evidence from the data provided to support the scientists' claim.
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- The response indicates that 38% of the prey animals of the lions make up 63% of the consumed biomass, so if the availability of the very large animals becomes limiting, the leopards and lions will start to compete for prey (and this will be especially true of the medium-sized prey). - The response indicates that for the most part, the leopards and lions rely on prey animals of different size and so do not compete for food. (The population data suggest that their population sizes have remained fairly constant over time, also suggesting that they are not in direct competition.)
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FRQ#2
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(a) Describe why monitoring the growth rate of the E. coli-M bacteria is a useful indicator of the effect of the glycolytic enzyme mutation on the bacteria.
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- The response indicates that if the mutation interferes with glucose breakdown, less ATP will be available to the cells. The change in ATP availability will reduce the growth rate and population size of the bacteria.
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(b) Identify the most appropriate control the researchers should use when determining whether the mutation affects the growth rate of the E. coli-M bacteria.
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- The response indicates that the researchers should set up and monitor the growth rate of an identical culture of wild-type E. coli that lack the mutation.
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(c) Predict the growth rate pattern of the E. coli-M bacteria when they are initially added to the growth medium if the mutation does not interfere with glucose utilization.
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- The response indicates that the E. coli-M bacteria will (initially) exhibit exponential growth.
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(d) Provide reasoning to justify your prediction.
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- The response indicates that the growth medium should initially contain a concentration of nutrients including glucose that far exceeds the requirements of the relatively small inoculum of bacteria.