Sociology Final example #71596

8 July 2024
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The term capital punishment refers to
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the death penalty
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________ refers to blemishes that discredit a person's claim to a "normal" identity.
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stigma
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Shaming is
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starting to make a comeback
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The system of police, courts, and prisons set up to deal with people who are accused of having committed a crime is known as
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the criminal justice system
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In control theory, how many control systems are in place to work against our tendencies to deviate?
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two
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There are a variety of ways to approach deviance. ________ look for answers within individuals, such as a possible genetic predisposition to deviance.
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sociobiologists
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In strain theory, institutionalized means are
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approved ways to reaching cultural goods
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Women commit about _________ murders, but make up only ________ of death row inmates.
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10%, 2%
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____________ the decision to arrest someone or even to ignore a matter, is a routine part of police work.
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police discretion
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Conflict theorists view the criminal justice system as
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a tool designed by the powerful to maintain their power and privlege
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In the medicalization of deviance, deviance becomes a symptom of some underlying illness that demands treatment by
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physicians
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The United States has 5% of the world's population and about ________ of the world's prisoners.
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25%
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Edward Sutherland used the term _______ to indicate that people who associate with some groups learn an excess of definitions of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant.
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differential association
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According to functionalists, deviance ________ social unity.
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encourages
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In prison, _________ of inmates have less than a high-school education. In the U.S. population over 18 years of age, _________ of people have less than a high-school education.
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30.6%, 12.4%
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________ violate(s) rules that are written into law.
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Crime
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When judges assign youthful offenders to social workers and counselors, rather than sending them to reform school or jail, they are using diversion, which testifies to the power of
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labeling theory
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_________ states that the labels people are given affect their own and others' perceptions of them, thus channeling their behavior into either deviance or conformity.
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Labeling theory
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Psychologists look at _________ as a possible cause of deviance.
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personality disorders
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About _________ of all those in prison have a father, mother, brother, sister, or spouse who has also served time in prison.
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one-half
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Executives who are responsible for harm caused by creating pollution, manipulating prices, or making unsafe products can usually
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bypass the courts altogether
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Because deviance undermines predictability, a system of ________ was developed to enforce the norms.
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social control
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The sharp decline in violent crime can be attributed to
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a variety of potential factors; research has not yet shown which
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Street crime refers to acts such as
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mugging, rape, and robbery
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Outlaw bikers _________ a deviant identity.
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revel in
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In families living in dangerous neighborhoods, parents want to move because they feel that if their kids have delinquent friends, they are likely to become delinquent, too. Sociologists research _______ this belief.
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supports
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Strain theory __________ the sociologist view that deviants are the product of society.
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supports
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Serial murder is defined as the killing of several victims in ________ or more separate events.
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three
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The _________ our bonds are with society, the ________ our inner controls are.
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stronger; more effective
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Executives who committed corporate crimes at Macy's, Sears, and Bloomingdales spent _______ in jail.
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no time
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The recidivism rate, which is the percentage of released convicts who are rearrested, is _______ within three years of release.
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68%
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_________ attempt(s) to neutralize the more demands of society.
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all of us
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A good indicator that the death penalty applies to lower-class citizens is that ________ of all the prisoners on death row have not finished high school.
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one-half
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Symbolic interactionists stress that we
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help to produce our own orientation to life
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In a(n) __________, an individual is called to account before the group, witnesses denounce the person, the offender is pronounced guilty, and the offender is then stripped of the identity of being a group member.
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degradation ceremony
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A group's __________, or customary social arrangements, is brought about by norms.
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social order
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On any given day, one out of _____ African Americans, one out of _____ Latino, and one out of _____ white men in their 20s is in jail.
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8; 26; 100
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Killing is ______ in mainstream society; but for members of the Mafia, when certain of their norms are broken that threaten a person's honor, _____ would be a deviant act.
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deviant; not killing
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Since the death penalty was reinstated in 1977, ______ of those put to death have been white and _______ have been African Americans.
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62%; 38%
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The motorcycle policeman appeared out of nowhere and pulled Teresa over for speeding. He was friendly and businesslike as he stood by Teresa's open window and issued her a $250 ticket. This is an example of a
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negative sanction
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______ is the violation of norms.
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deviance
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Who did the spate of "three strikes" laws actually end up convicting?
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nonviolent offenders
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_______ may force a group to rethink its moral boundaries, helping the group to adapt to changing circumstances.
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deviance
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The _______ refers to opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life.
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illegitimate opportunity structure
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Ted gave a talk to his high school class that was laced with humor and understanding and showed that he really grasped the important points in the history of the French Revolution, which was what his history class was studying. When he was finished, Ted was praised by his teacher as well as by several classmates. The praise was an example of a
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positive sanction
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Sociologist Robert Merton developed
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strain theory
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How does deviance clarify moral boundaries and affirm norms?
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punishment of a deviating group member helps make clear what it means to be a member of the group
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Techniques of ______ are ways of thinking or rationalizing that help people deflect, or neutralize, society's norms.
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neutralization
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A _______ is committed by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupations.
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white-collar crime
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In the 20 years from 1992 to 2012, the percentage of people arrested for burglary who were women
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increased by 82%