ServSafe Chap 1 And 2

25 July 2022
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What is Food borne Illness
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Is a illness carried or transmitted to people by food
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What are the potential costs associated with foodborne illness outbreaks
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○ Loss of customers and sales ○ Negative media exposure ○ Lawsuits and legal fee ○ Increased insurance premiums ○ Loss of reputation ○ Lowered employee morale ○ employee absenteeism ○ staff retraining
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Which is the high risk population for foodborne illness
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○ Infants and preschool-age children ○ Pregnant women ○ Elderly people ○ People taking certain medication ○ People who are seriously ill
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What are the 3 major types of hazards to food safety
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○ biological ○ chemical ○ physical
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According to the CDC which are the five most common risk factors that can cause foodborne illness
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○ failing to cook food adequately ○ holding food at incorrect temperatures ○ using contaminated equipment ○ practicing poor personal hygiene ○ purchasing food from unsafe sources
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How does the food becomes unsafe
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Food becomes unsafe because of ○ time-temperature abuse ○ cross contamination ○ poor personal hygiene
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When is considered time-temperature abuse
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Anytime it has been allowed to remain too long at temperatures favorable to the growth of foodborne microorganisms
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When does cross contamination occurs
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It occurs when microorganisms are transferred from one food or surface to another
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What food items are better able to support the growth of pathogens
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○ Milk and dairy products ○ meat, beef, pork and lamb ○ fish ○ baked potatoes ○ tofu or other soy protein. Synthetic ingredients such as textured soy protein in meat alternatives ○ sliced melons, cut tomatoes ○ eggs ○ poultry ○ shellfish and crustaceans ○ heat-treated plant food, such as cooked rice, beans, and vegetables ○ sprouts and sprouts seed ○ untreated garlic and oil mixtures
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What is Microorganism
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Small, living organism
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What is Pathogen
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illness-causing microorganism
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What is Toxin
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Poison
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What microorganisms can contaminate food and cause foodborne illness
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○ Bacteria ○ Viruses ○ Parasites ○ Fungi
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What 2 FAT TOM conditions are easiest for an establishment to control
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○ Time: refrigerate or freeze food and cook properly ○ Temperature: minimize time food spends in the temperature danger zone
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How can a outbreak of Norovirus be prevented
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○ Practicing personal hygiene ○ Keeping employees with diarrhea/vomiting or diagnosed with Norovirus out of the operation ○ Washing hands ○ Minimizing bare-hands contact with ready -to- eat food ○ Purchasing shell fish from approved, reputable supplies
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What measures should be taken to prevent a seafood-specific foodborne illness
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Purchasing seafood from approved, reputable suppliers is the most important measure
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How can plant toxins be prevented from getting into food
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To prevent plants toxins from getting into food: ○ purchase plants and items made with plants only from approved, reputable suppliers ○ cook and hold dishes made from these items correctly
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What does microorganisms need for them to grow
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F= Food A= Acidity T= Time T= Temperature O= Oxigen M= Moisture
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Why is food needed for microorganisms to grow
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Food borne microorganism require nutrients to grow. Specifically carbohydrates and proteins
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Why is acidity needed for microorganism to grow
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Food borne microorganism grow best in food that has a neutral or slightly acidic pH [7.5 to 4.6]
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Food borne pathogens grow well at what temperatures
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between 41° F and 135° F [5° C and 57° C]
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Why is time important factor in the growth of microorganisms
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Food borne microorganism need sufficient time to grow. 4 hours or more in TDZ [temperature danger zone] = growth high enough to cause illness
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Why is oxigen needed for microorganisms to grow
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Some foodborne microorganism require oxigen to grow while others grow when oxigen is absent
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Why is moisture needed for microorganisms to grow
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The amount of moisture available in food for this growth is called water activity. Potentially hazardous food typically has a water activity of .85 or higher
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Which conditions typically support the growth of microorganisms
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○ Food that is high in fat ○ Food that contains protein
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What is Foodborne Infections
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Is the result when a person eats food containing pathogens, which then grow in the intestines and cause illness
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What is Foodborne Intoxications
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Is the result when a person eat food containing toxins that cause illness
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What is Foodborne Toxin-mediated infections
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Is the result when a person eats food containing pathogens, which then produce illness-causing toxins in the intestines
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Which are the basic characteristics of bacteria that can cause foodborne illness
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○ Living, single-called organism ○ Can be carried by food, water, soil, animals, humans, or insects ○ Can reproduce very rapidly under favorable conditions
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What are other basic characteristics of bacteria can cause foodborne illness
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○ Some can survive freezing ○ some changes into a different form called spores to protect themselves ○ Some spoil food; others cause illness ○ Some produce toxins that cause illness
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Which are the basic characteristics of spores that can cause foodborne illness
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○ Is form when nutrients are not available ○ Commonly found in soil and contaminate food grown there ○ Can contaminate meat, poultry, fish and other food exposed to soil or dust ○ Can resist heat, allowing them to survive cooking temperature ○ Can revert back to a form capable of growth when food is not stored at the proper temperature and is not held or cooled properly
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Which are the major foodborne infections caused by bacteria
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○ Campylobacteriosis ○ Salmonellosis ○ Shigellosis ○ Listeriosis ○ Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis ○ Vibrio vulnificus primary septicemia/ gastroenteritis
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Campylobacteriosis
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○ Bacteria: Campylobacter jejuni ○ Commonly Associated Food: poultry, contaminated water ○ Most Common symptoms: diarrhea [bloody], abdominal cramps, fever, headache ○ Prevention: • cook food, particularly poultry, to required minimum internal temperature • prevent cross-contamination between raw poultry and ready- to-eat-food
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Salmonellosis
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○ Bacteria: Salmonellosis spp. ○ Commonly Associated Food: poultry and eggs, dairy products, beef ○ Most Common symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, vomiting ○ Prevention: • cook raw beef, poultry and eggs to required minimum internal temperatures • minimize cross-contamination between raw meat and poultry and ready- to-eat-food • exclude foodhandlers diagnosed with salmonellosis
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Shigellosis
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○ Bacteria: Shigella spp. ○ Commonly Associated Food: food easily contaminated by hands and/or with contaminated water ○ Most Common symptoms: bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramps, fever [occasionally] ○ Prevention: • exclude foodhandlers if they have diarrhea or have been diagnosed by shigellosis • wash hands when necessary • control flies inside and outside the establishment
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Listeriosis
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○ Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes ○ Commonly Associated Food: raw meat, unpasteurized milk and milk products, ready to eat food including: deli meats, hot dogs, soft cheese ○ Most Common symptoms: • Pregnant women: spontaneous abortion of the fetus • Newborns: sepsis, pneumonia, menigitis ○ Prevention: • discard product that has passed it use by or expiration date • cook raw meat required minimum internal temperatures • prevent cross-contamination between raw or undercooked and ready- to-eat-food
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Vibrio Parahaemolyticus Gastroenteritis
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○ Bacteria: Vibrio Parahaemolyticus ○ Commonly Associated Food: raw or partially cooked oysters ○ Most Common symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, low grade fever and chills ○ Prevention: • purchase oysters from approved, reputable suppliers • cook oysters to the required minimum internal temperatures
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Vibrio Vulnificus Septicemia/Gastroenteritis
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○ Bacteria: Vibrio Vulnificus ○ Commonly Associated Food: raw or partially cooked oysters ○ Most Common symptoms: • Septicemia: people with liver disease and diabetes fever, chills, nausea, skin lesions, diarrhea and vomiting possible; • Gastroenteritis: otherwise health people diarrhea, abdominal cramps ○ Prevention: • purchase oysters from approved, reputable suppliers • cook oysters to the required minimum internal temperatures • inform people at risk to consult a physician before regulary consuming raw or partially cooked oysters
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Which are the major foodborne intoxications caused by bacteria
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○ Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis ○ Staphylococcal gastroenteritis ○ Botulism
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Bacillus Cereus Gastroenteritis [diarrheal toxin]
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○ Bacteria: Bacillus cereus ○ Commonly Associated Food: cooked corn, potatoes, vegetables, meat products ○ Most Common symptoms: watery diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramps, vomiting is absent
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Bacillus Cereus Gastroenteritis [emetic toxin]
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○ Commonly Associated Food: cooked rice dishes including fried rice, rice pudding ○ Most Common symptoms: nausea, vomiting
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Bacillus Cereus Gastroenteritis [diarrheal or emetic toxin] prevention measures
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○ Prevention: • cook food to the required minimum internal temperatures • hold food at the proper temperature • cool food properly
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Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis
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○ Bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus ○ Commonly Associated Food: salads containing egg, tuna, chicken, macaroni also deli meats ○ Most Common symptoms: nauseas, vomiting and retching, abdominal cramps ○ Prevention: • wash hands after touching the body • cover cuts on hands and arms • restrict foodhandlers with infected cuts on hands and arms • minimize the time food spends in the TDZ. cook, hold, and cool food properly
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Botulism
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○ Bacteria: Clostridium botulinum ○ Commonly Associated Food: improperly canned food, ROP food, temperature abused vegetables like baked potatoes, untreated garlic and oil mixtures ○ Most Common symptoms: initially nauseas and vomiting; later weakness double vision, difficulty speaking and swallowing ○ Prevention: • hold, cool, and reheat food properly • inspect canned food for damage
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Which are the major foodborne Toxin-mediated infections caused by bacteria
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○ Clostriduim perfringens gastroenteritis ○ Hemorrhagic colitis
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Clostriduim Perfringens Gastroenteritis
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○ Bacteria: Clostridium perfringens ○ Commonly Associated Food: meat, poultry, meat and poultry dishes: stews, graves ○ Most Common symptoms: diarrhea, severe abdominal, fever and vomiting are absent ○ Prevention: • cool and reheat food properly • hold food at the proper temperature
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Hemorrhagic Colitis
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○ Bacteria: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli ○ Commonly Associated Food: ground beef [raw and undercooked], contaminated produce ○ Most Common symptoms: diarrhea [bloody], abdominal cramps, severe cases can result in hemolytic uremic symdrome [HUS] ○ Prevention: • cook food, particularly ground beef to the required minimum internal temperatures • prevent cross-contaminated between raw meat and ready to eat food • exclude employee having diarrhea or diagnosed with hemorrhagic colitis
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Which are the basic characteristics of viruses that can cause foodborne illness
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○ some may survive freezing ○ can be transmitted from: person to person; people to food; people to food contact surfaces ○ usually contaminated food through a foodhandler's improper hygiene ○ can contaminate both food and water supplies
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Which are the major foodborne illnesses caused by virus
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○ Hepatitis A ○ Norovirus Gastroenteritis
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Hepatitis A
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○ Virus: Hepatitis A ○ Commonly Associated Food: ready to eat food: deli meats, produce, salads, raw and partially cooked shellfish ○ Most Common symptoms: mild fever, general weakness, nausea, abdominal pain; later jaundice ○ Prevention: • wash hands properly • exclude employees who have jaundice or Hepatitis A • Minimize bare hands contact with ready to eat food • purchase shellfish from approved, reputable suppliers • inform people at risk to consult a physician before regulary consuming raw or partially cooked shellfish
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Norovirus Gastroenteritis
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○ Virus: Norovirus ○ Commonly Associated Food: ready to eat food, contaminated shellfish by sewage ○ Most Common symptoms: vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal cramps ○ Prevention: • exclude foodhandlers with diarrhea and vomiting • exclude employees diagnosed with Norovirus Gastroenteritis • wash hands properly contact with ready to eat food • purchase shellfish from approved, reputable suppliers
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Which are the basic characteristics of parasites cause foodborne illness
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○ are living organisms that need a host to survive ○ are small often microscopic ○ infect many animals and can be transmitted to humans ○ are a hazard to food and water
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Which are the major foodborne illnesses caused by parasites
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○ Anisakiasis ○ Cyclosporiasis ○ Cryptosporidiosis ○ Giardiasis
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Anisakiasis
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○ Parasite: Anisakis simplex ○ Commonly Associated Food: raw and undercooked herring, cod, halibut, mackerel, pacific salmon ○ Most Common symptoms: • Non-invasive: tingling in throat, coughing up worms • Invasive: stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea ○ Prevention: • cook fish to the required minimum internal temperatures • purchase fish from approved, reputable suppliers • purchase sushi-grade fish • ensure sushi-grade fish has been frozen properly by the supplier
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Cyclosporiasis
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○ Parasite: Cyclospora cayetanensis ○ Commonly Associated Food: produce irrigated or wahsed with water containing the parasite ○ Most Common symptoms: mild to severe nausea, abdominal cramping, mild fever, diarrhea alternating with constipation ○ Prevention: • purchase produce from approved, reputable suppliers • exclude foodhandlers with diarrhea • wash hands properly to minimize the risk of cross-contamination
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Cryptosporidiosis
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○ Parasite: Cryptosporidium parvum ○ Commonly Associated Food: untreated or improperly treated water, contaminated produce ○ Most Common symptoms: watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, weight loss ○ Prevention: • It is critical to purchase produce from approved, reputable suppliers • Use properly treated water • exclude foodhandlers with diarrhea • wash hands properly to minimize the risk of cross- contamination
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Giardiasis
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○ Parasite: Giardia doudenalis ○ Commonly Associated Food: improperly treated water ○ Most Common symptoms: initially fever; later loose stools, abdominal cramps, nausea ○ Prevention: • Use properly treated water • exclude foodhandlers with diarrhea • wash hands properly to minimize the risk of cross- contamination `
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Fungi
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It commonly cause food spoilage and sometimes illness
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Which are the basic characteristics of mold that can cause foodborne illness
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○ spoils food ○ grows well in acidic food with low water activity ○ is not destroyed by freezing ○ can produce toxins such as aflatoxins
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Which are the basic characteristics of yeast that can cause foodborne illness
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○ can spoil food rapidly ○ may produce a smell or taste of alcohol as it spoils food ○ may appear as a pink discoloration or slime and may bubble