Quiz 3 Microbiology

24 July 2022
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Spirochetes have a twisting and flexing locomotion due to appendages called: flagella. cilia. fimbriae. periplasmic flagella (axial filaments). sex pili.
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The short, numerous appendages used by some bacterial cells for adhering to surfaces are called: flagella. cilia. fimbriae. periplasmic flagella (axial filaments). sex pili.
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The transfer of genes during bacterial conjugation involves rigid, tubular appendages called: flagella. cilia. fimbriae. periplasmic flagella (axial filaments). sex pili.
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The most immediate result of destruction of a cell's ribosomes would be: material would not be able to cross the cell membrane. protein synthesis would stop. destruction of the cell's DNA. formation of glycogen inclusions. loss of capsule.
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A bacterial cell exhibiting chemotaxis probably has: fimbriae. capsule. mesosomes. flagella. metachromatic granules.
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Which structure protects bacteria from being phagocytized? slime layer fimbriae cell membrane capsule All of the choices are correct
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If bacteria living in salty seawater were displaced to a freshwater environment, the cell structure that would prevent the cells from rupturing is: endospore. cell wall. cell membrane. capsule. slime layer.
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All of the following structures contribute to the ability of pathogenic bacteria to cause disease, except: inclusions. fimbriae. capsule. slime layer. outer membrane of gram-negative cell walls.
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A prokaryotic cell wall that has primarily peptidoglycan with small amounts of teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid is: gram-negative. gram-positive. archaea. spheroplast. acid fast.
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A bacterial genus that has waxy mycolic acid in the cell walls is: Mycobacterium. Mycoplasma. Streptococcus. Corynebacterium. Salmonella.
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The difference in cell wall structure of Mycobacterium and Nocardia compared to the typical gram-positive bacterial cell wall structure is: more peptidoglycan. predominance of unique, waxy lipids. easily decolorized. presence of lipopolysaccharide. All of the choices are correct.
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Lipopolysaccharide is an important cell wall component of : gram-negative bacteria. gram-positive bacteria. acid-fast bacteria. mycoplasmas. protoplasts.
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The periplasmic space is: larger in gram-positive bacteria. made up of lipopolysaccharides and phospholipids. an important reaction site for substances entering and leaving the cell. where peptidoglycan is located. absent in gram-negative bacteria.
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The site/s for most ATP synthesis in prokaryotic cells is/are the: ribosomes. mitochondria. cell wall. inclusions. cell membrane.
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The bacterial chromosome: is located in the cell membrane. contains all the cell's plasmids. is part of the nucleoid. forms a single linear strand of DNA. All of the choices are correct.
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Which is mismatched? ribosomes - protein synthesis inclusions - excess cell nutrients and materials plasmids - genes essential for growth and metabolism. nucleoid - hereditary material cytoplasm - dense, gelatinous solution
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The function of bacterial endospores is: to convert gaseous nitrogen to a usable form for plants. for reproduction and growth. for protection of genetic material during harsh conditions. the storage of excess cell materials. to have sites for photosynthesis.
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Chemical analysis of a bacterial cell structure detects calcium dipicolinic acid. What is the identity of this structure? cell wall capsule slime layer nucleoid endospore
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Endospores are: metabolically inactive. resistant to heat and chemical destruction. resistant to destruction by radiation. living structures. All of the choices are correct.
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Bacterial endospores are not produced by Staphylococcus. Sporosarcina. Bacillus. Clostridium. All of the choices are correct.
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Which term is not used to describe bacterial cell shapes? coccus tetrad vibrio rod spirochete
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Which statement is not a characteristic of biofilms? They can be involved with human disease. They involve bacteria only. They evolve and adapt to their surroundings. They are very difficult to eliminate with antimicrobials. They can accumulate on living and non-living surfaces.
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An important indicator of evolutionary relatedness is to determine: size of the periplasmic space. similarities of cell membrane proteins. size of the bacterial chromosome. nitrogen base sequence of rRNA. size of the ribosomes.
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Which phylum is mismatched? Gracilicutes - gram-negative cell walls Firmicutes - gram-positive cell walls Actinobacteria - waxy acid fast cell walls Proteobacteria - archaea cell walls None of the choices are correct
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Which is mismatched? Chlamydias - lack ability to independently complete growth and metabolism Green sulfur bacteria - photosynthetic anaerobes that use sulfur in metabolism Cyanobacteria - filamentous, gliding, thermophilic bacteria Myxobacteria - gliding, fruiting, slime bacteria None of the choices are correct
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The presence of thylakoids, phycocyanin, gas inclusions, and cysts would be associated with green sulfur bacteria. cyanobacteria. purple sulfur bacteria. archaea. spirochetes.
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When a rod shaped bacteria is short and plump, it is called a: spirochete. pleomorphism. vibrio. coccobacillus. spirillum.
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Sarcinae refers to: cocci in pairs. a cuboidal packet of cells. groups of endopsores. coffee-bean shaped rods in pairs. vibrios in threes.
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What is the correct sequence for a Gram stain? Gram's iodine, Crystal Violet, Alcohol, Safranin Crystal Violet, Safranin, Alcohol, Gram's iodine Crystal Violet, Gram's iodine, Alcohol, Safranin Safranin, Crystal Violet, Gram's iodine, Alcohol Alcohol, Crystal Violet, Safranin, Gram's iodine
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All of the following are correct about biofilms, except: they are cooperative associations among several microbial groups. they play an important role in recycling elements in the earth. they can colonize medical devices. an example could be the scum that builds up in toilet bowls. they are harmless aggregations of microbes.
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Bacteria with small bunches of flagella emerging from the same site are said to be: lophotrichous. peritrichous. monotrichous. amphitrichous. spirilla.
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All of the following are correct about a slime layer, except: it is a type of glycocalyx. it can be easily washed off the cell. it protects the cell from loss of water and nutrients. it enables movement of cells. it allows cells to participate in biofilms.
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Lysozyme, an enzyme found in tears, provides a natural defense against bacteria by : hydrolyzing peptidoglycan in cell walls. inhibiting protein synthesis. removing flagella. dissolving the cell membrane. removing the capsule from outside the cell.
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In the Gram stain, the mordant is : Crystal Violet. Safranin. Alcohol. Water. Iodine.
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Which cell structure is an important agent in modern genetic engineering techniques? ribosomes capsules plasmids inclusions mesosomes
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A microoganism has been described to you as living in hot acidic habitats in the waste piles of coal mines that regularly sustain a pH of 1 and a temperature of nearly 60Ā°C. Which type of organism do you immediately assume it is? Gracillucates Firmicutes Actinobacteria Archaea Spirochaetes
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Which of the following is mismatched? Rickettsia rickettsii: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rickettsia typhi: endemic typhus Chlamydia trachomatis: blindness Coxiella burnetti: Cow pox All of these are correct associations
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Which of the following characteristics is not a property of cells or living things? Cell boundary Ability to replicate Nucleus Responds to stimulus All of the choices are correct
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Protists include: yeasts and molds. algae and protozoa. helminths. All of the choices are correct. None of the choices are correct.
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The eukaryotic cell organelle that most resembles a bacterial cell is the: nucleus. golgi apparatus. mitochondria. lysosome. ribosome.
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Eukaryotic flagella differ from prokaryotic flagella because only eukaryotic flagella: are used for cell motility. facilitate chemotaxis. facilitate phototaxis. are long whip-like structures. contain microtubules.
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Cilia are found in certain: protozoa. algae. fungi. bacteria. All of the choices are correct.
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Chitin is a chemical component of the cell walls of : protozoa. algae. fungi. bacteria. All of the choices are correct.
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Cell walls are not found on typical cells of: protozoa. algae. fungi. bacteria. All of the choices are correct.
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The site for ribosomal RNA synthesis in eukaryotes is the : ribosome. nucleolus. nucleus. golgi apparatus. lysosome.
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When a eukaryotic cell is not undergoing mitosis, the DNA and its associated proteins appear as a visible thread-like mass called the: nuclear envelope. nucleosome. nucleolus. nucleoplasm. chromatin.
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Histones are: found in polyribosomes. enzymes found in lysosomes. proteins of the cytoskeleton. proteins associated with DNA in the nucleus. on the surface of rough endoplasmic reticulum.
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The eukaryotic cell's glycocalyx is: mostly polysaccharide. the site where many metabolic reactions occur. also called the cell wall. composed of many diverse proteins. protection against osmotic lysis.
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Which of the following is found in eukaryotic cells but not in prokaryotic cells? nucleus mitochondria endoplasmic reticulum lysosomes All of the choices are correct.
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The endosymbiotic theory says that precursor eukaryotic cells acquired flagella by endosymbiosis with a _____ ancestor, and others gained photosynthetic ability from endosymbiosis with a _____ ancestor. protozoan, algae archaea, cyanobacteria spirochete, cyanobacteria helminth, algae None of the choices are correct.
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The cell's series of tunnel-like membranes functioning in transport and storage are the: mitochondria. lysosomes. Golgi apparatus. chloroplasts. endoplasmic reticulum.
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An organelle that is a stack of flattened, membranous sacs and functions to receive, modify, and package proteins for cell secretion is the: mitochondria. lysosomes. Golgi apparatus. chloroplasts. endoplasmic reticulum.
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Which organelle contains cristae where enzymes and electron carriers for aerobic respiration are found? mitochondria lysosomes Golgi apparatus chloroplasts endoplasmic reticulum
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Organelles found in algae but not found in protozoa or fungi are the: mitochondria. lysosomes. Golgi apparatus. chloroplasts. endoplasmic reticulum.
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Protists with contractile vacuoles: are algae. use them to expel excess water from the cell. typically live in salty seawater. use them for motility. All of the choices are correct.
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The cytoskeleton: anchors organelles. provides support. functions in movements of the cytoplasm. helps maintain cell shape. All of the choices are correct.
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The size of a eukaryotic cell ribosome is 30S. 40S. 50S. 70S. 80S.
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Filamentous fungi are called: pseudohyphae. septa. molds. dimorphic. mycelium.
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When buds remain attached, they form a chain of yeast cells called: pseudohyphae. septa. molds. dimorphic. mycelium.
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Fungi that grow as yeast at one temperature but will grow as mold at another temperature are called: dimorphic. saprobes. pseudohyphae. spores. Fungi Imperfecti (Deuteromycota).
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Fungal spores: are only produced under harmful environmental conditions. are only asexually produced. cannot be seen in a light microscope. are produced by molds but not by yeasts. are used to identify fungi.
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Which of the following spores are produced within a sac? chlamydospores sporangiospores blastospores arthrospores zygospores
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Which of the following spores are sexually produced? chlamydospores sporangiospores blastospores arthrospores zygospores
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A mold is observed to have asexual conidia, sexual spores within a sac, and septate hyphae. It is most likely classified in the: Zygomycota. Ascomycota. Basidiomycota. Deuteromycota. Fungi Imperfecti.
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What do zygospores, ascospores, and basidiospores have in common? They are enclosed in a sac. They are types of conidia. They are sexual spores. They are found only in molds. All of the choices are correct.
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Which is not a characteristic of fungi? cells have cell walls photosynthetic include single-celled and filamentous forms heterotrophic nutrition can use a wide variety of nutrients
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Blooms of certain dinoflagellates are associated with all of the following except : paralytic shellfish poisoning. red tides. ciguatera. Pfiesteria piscicida. euglenids.
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Which is mismatched? Pyrrophyta - euglenids Chrysophyta - diatoms Phaeophyta - brown algae Rhodophyta - red seaweed Chlorophyta - green algae
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All of the following are found in some or all protozoa except : motility. ectoplasm and endoplasm. heterotrophic nutrition. formation of a cyst stage. cell wall.
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The motile, feeding stage of protozoa is called the: trophozoite. cyst. sporozoite. oocyst. food vacuole.
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The group of protozoa that have flagella are the: Sarcodina. Ciliophora. Mastigophora. Apicomplexa. None of the choices are correct.
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Which is mismatched? Giardia - transmitted by feces in drinking water Histoplasma - causes Ohio Valley fever Trichomonas - sexually transmitted Plasmodium - causes Chagas disease Saccharomyces - yeast in making bread and beer
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All of the following are helminths except: pinworms. flukes. trypanosomes. roundworms. tapeworms.
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Which of the following does not pertain to helminths? in kingdom Protista parasitic worms eggs and sperm for reproduction often alternate hosts in complex life cycles have various organ systems
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Larvae and eggs are developmental forms of : protozoa. algae. helminths. fungi. None of the choices are correct.
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Both fish and humans develop neurological symptoms and bloody skin lesions due to a sudden "bloom" of this algae: Prototheca Pfiesteria piscida diatoms Phaeophyta All of the above.
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The stacks of thylakoids in a chloroplast are called: grana. stroma. mesosomes. cristae. packages.
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In order to reproduce sexually, diploid cells must produce _________ gametes through ________. diploid, mitosis diploid, meiosis haploid, mitosis haploid, meiosis triploid, mitosis
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The smooth endoplasmic reticulum functions in synthesis of ___________. glycogen proteins glucose nucleic acids lipids
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The smooth endoplasmic reticulum functions in synthesis of ___________. glycogen proteins glucose nucleic acids lipids
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On what basis are fungi classified as Fungi Imperfecti, or Deuteromycota? Based on their ability to cause diseases in animals. Based on whether they have a cap containing gills. Based on if the fungus lacks a sexual state. Based on if they have a special fungal sac. Based on if they can grow in acidic soil.
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Which of the following is the cause of malaria? Toxoplasma gondii Plasmodium Giardia Leishmania Trypanosoma
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Sources for human infection with worms are all of the following except : infected animals. contaminated food. contaminated water. contaminated soil. contaminated air.
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All of the following are correct about helminthes except: they generally make only a few eggs per day. they are not all parasites, although some are. as parasites, their reproductive organs are their most developed organs. their eggs and larvae are vulnerable to heat. tapeworms and pinworms are two examples.
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The organelle involved in intracellular digestion of food particles is the : Golgi apparatus. lysosomes. cisternae. transitional vesicles. smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
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Viruses have all the following except: definite shape. metabolism. genes. ability to infect host cells. ultramicroscopic size.
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Host cells of viruses include: human and other animals. plants and fungi. bacteria. protozoa and algae. All of the choices are correct.
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The core of every virus particle always contains: DNA. capsomers. enzymes. DNA and RNA. either DNA or RNA.
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Classification of viruses into families involves determining all the following characteristics except : type of nucleic acid. type of capsid. presence of an envelope. biochemical reactions. nucleic acid strand number.
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Which of the following represents a virus family name? Herpes simplex virus Herpesviridae Picornavirus Enterovirus Hepatitis B virus
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Virus capsids are made from subunits called : envelopes. spikes. capsomeres. prophages. peplomers.
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Helical and icosahedral are terms used to describe the shapes of a virus: spike. capsomere. envelope. capsid. core.
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Which of the following is correct about most viruses? cannot be seen with a light microscope are prokaryotic contain 70S ribosomes undergo binary fission can be grown on nutrient agar
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All of the following pertain to virus envelopes except they: are gained as a virus leaves the host cell membrane. are found primarily on animal viruses. contain special virus proteins. help the virus particle attach to host cells. are located between the capsid and nucleic acid.
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Which of the following is not associated with every virus? envelope capsomers capsid nucleic acid genome
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These structures are used by bacteriophages to attach to host cell receptors: sheath tail fibers nucleic acid capsid head None of the choices are correct.
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Which is incorrect about prophages? present when the virus is in lysogeny formed when viral DNA enters the bacterial chromosome replicated with host DNA and passed on to progeny always lyse the host cell occur when temperate phages enter host cells
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The correct sequence of events in viral multiplication is: penetration, replication, maturation, adsorption, assembly, release. replication, penetration, maturation, assembly, absorption, release. adsorption, penetration, replication, maturation, assembly, release. assembly, maturation, replication, release, penetration, adsorption. adsorption, release, maturation, replication, assembly, penetration.
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The event that occurs in bacteriophage multiplication that does not occur in animal virus replication is : adsorption to the host cells. injection of the viral nucleic acid into the host cell. host cell synthesis of viral enzymes and capsid proteins. assembly of nucleocapsids. replication of viral nucleic acid.
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Viruses acquire envelopes around their nucleocapsids during: replication. assembly. adsorption. release. penetration.
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Which of the following will not support viral cultivation? live lab animals embryonated bird eggs primary cell cultures continuous cell cultures blood agar
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Visible, clear, well-defined patches in a monolayer of virus-infected cells in a culture are called lysogeny. budding. plaques. cytopathic effects. pocks.
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Viruses that cause infection resulting in alternating periods of activity with symptoms and inactivity without symptoms are called: latent oncogenic. prions. viroids. delta agents.
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Which of the following is a type of cytopathic effect? inclusions in the nucleus multinucleated giant cells inclusions in the cytoplasm cells round up All of the choices are correct.
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Which of the following is a type of cytopathic effect? inclusions in the nucleus multinucleated giant cells inclusions in the cytoplasm cells round up All of the choices are correct.
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Infectious protein particles are called: viroids. phages. prions. oncogenic viruses. spikes.
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Infectious naked strands of RNA are called: viroids. phages. prions. oncogenic viruses. spikes.
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Satellite viruses are: also called viroids. dependent on other viruses for replication. the cause of spongiform encephalopathies. significant pathogens of plants. All of the choices are correct.
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All of the following is correct about treating viral diseases except : viruses are killed by the same antibiotics that kill bacteria. many antiviral drugs block viral replication. many antiviral drugs cause severe side effects. interferons show potential for treating and preventing viral infections. All of the choices are correct.
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The capsomers are made of: DNA. RNA. lipids. protein. carbohydrate.
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Viruses that consist of only a nucleocapsid are considered: simple viruses. complex viruses. naked viruses. viroids. incomplete viruses.
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The nucleocapsid consists of: the capsomers assembled into the capsid. the nucleic acid of the virus only. the nucleic acid along with the capsid. the envelope and capsid. the envelope, nucleic acid, and capsid.
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Which of the following parts of a virus is not always present? envelope nucleic acid capsid capsomers None of the choices are optional parts of a virus.
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Which of the following viruses did D. Ivanovski and M. Beijerinck work with? Rabies Smallpox Tobacco Mosaic Virus Herpes Epstein-Barr virus
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Viruses belong to which of the following Kingdoms? Protists Fungi Archaea Bacteria None of the choices are correct.
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Which body system is mainly affected by Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease? digestive genitourinary nervous circulatory respiratory
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When a virus enters a lysogenic phase, it means: the virus is integrated into the DNA of the host cell and is latent. the virus is bursting through the host cell membrane. the virus is starting biosynthesis of its nucleic acid. the virus will remain in circulation and not continue infecting its host. the number of viruses in the host is decreasing as the immune system becomes effective.
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All of the following are characteristics of viruses except: they can be crystallized. they often have a geometric capsid. they have a viscous fluid inside their capsids. they can cause fatal diseases. they can cause mild diseases.
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How do enveloped animal viruses exit their host? Budding or exocytosis Bursting the host cell Rupturing the virus Endocytosis None of these are correct
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Clostridium botulinum is made virulent by incorporated prophage genes encoding for the botulinum toxin. What term describes this process? Lytic phase Budding Adsorption Lysogenic conversion Latent phase