psychology final exam chapter 9

18 April 2023
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Juan learned at an early age how to sell numerous items that ranged from chocolate to small electronics. Many say his best education came from the streets he grew up on. His abilities best illustrate:
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practical intelligence
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Your sister's identical twin sons are participating in a research study that will include MRI scans. The MRI findings will most likely indicate that:
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the boys have very similar gray matter volume.
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Estimating the likelihood of events in terms of how well they match particular prototypes is known as:
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representativeness heuristic.
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One component of emotional intelligence involves:
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skill at predicting when another's feelings are about to change.
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Research on racial and ethnic differences in intelligence indicates that:
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on average, Black Americans perform less well than White Americans on intelligence tests.
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_______________ maintains that our capacity for developing language is natural and quick because we come equipped with a built-in predisposition to learn grammar rules.
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Chomsky
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The extent to which group differences in intelligence are attributable to genetic factors is known as the ______________ of intelligence.
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heritability
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A potential source of irrationality is ______________, our tendency to cling to our views in the face of contradictory evidence.
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belief perseverance
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Down syndrome is an intellectual disability with associated physical disorders. It is caused by:
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an extra chromosome 21.
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Which procedure is used to identify clusters of related items that define g, or general intelligence?
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factor analysis
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The Hopi do not have a past tense for their verbs. According to _________, this suggests that because language imposes conceptions of reality they cannot readily think about the past.
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Whorf
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At the beginning of the semester, Professor Pauloa asks her students to predict the grade they will get for the semester. When she asks if they think they'll get an A, the majority raise their hands. This best illustrates:
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overconfidence.
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Which of the following is a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items?
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factor analysis
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Those who learn sign language as teens never become as fluent as children exposed to sign language from birth. This best illustrates the importance of _____ for mastering language.
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a critical period
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When people try to solve problems, they tend to think of objects or things only in terms of their usual functions. This impediment to problem solving is known as:
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a fixation.
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The existence of support programs for minority students may inadvertently imply that such students cannot succeed without special academic help. This may therefore unintentionally promote:
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stereotype threat.
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The widely used American revision of Alfred Binet's original intelligence test was developed by:
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Lewis Terman.
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Who has argued that all languages share some basic elements and named it universal grammar?
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Chomsky
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Howard Gardner proposes that humans have multiple intelligences that are relatively independent of each other. Which of the following is one of those intelligences?
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intrapersonal intelligence
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Your friend has trained his cockatiel, Franny, to discriminate between pictures of dogs and cats. He shows Franny a picture of a dog and she pecks at a dog symbol. When he shows her a picture of a cat, she pecks at a cat symbol. Franny the cockatiel is showing that she can:
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form concepts.
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Chinese-born Bao has lived in the United States since she was age 7. Bao reports that when she is speaking Chinese to her family and friends, she thinks about things differently than when she is speaking English.This is a good illustration of:
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linguistic determinism.
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Alicia believes that people who are impoverished are more likely to commit crimes. She has a tendency to search for information that supports her belief but to ignore evidence that says otherwise. She is demonstrating which of the following?
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confirmation bias
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Carol Dweck's research supports the idea of teaching young teens that the brain is like a muscle; it grows stronger with use as neuron connections grow. Praising children's effort rather than their ability encourages _____, which causes them to attribute success to hard work.
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a growth mindset
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If variation in intelligence within both group A and group B is completely due to genes, differences in average intelligence between these groups might result from all of the following EXCEPT:
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only genetic differences can account for the differences in average intelligence.
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In the English language, adjectives are typically placed before nouns (e.g., "green car"). This illustrates an English language rule of:
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syntax.
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Which of the following BEST illustrates productive language?
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word production
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Sultan, a chimpanzee that Wolfgang KΓΆhler studied, showed evidence for animal cognition. After he was given a short stick that could not reach a banana, he seemed to have an "Aha!" moment. He then used the short stick:
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to pull in a longer stick, with which he was then able to reach the banana.
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Jasmine's achieving an intelligence test score of 100 on a current version of the Stanford-Binet test indicates that relative to other young adults her age Jasmine's intellectual abilities:
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are average.
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J. McVicker Hunt began a program for caregivers in an Iranian orphanage that trained the caregivers to:
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imitate babies' babbling.
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Identical twins' brains are virtually the same in areas associated with _________________ intelligence.
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verbal and spatial
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A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people is known as a(n):
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concept.
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_______________ intelligence refers to our ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use our feelings.
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Emotional
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The part of the left temporal lobe involved in understanding language is known as:
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Wernicke's area.
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Women have been found to score lower on complex math tests when they are tested alongside men. This best illustrates the impact of:
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stereotype threat.
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Nine-year-old Jered is asking about the intelligence test he is scheduled to take next week, but at the moment his mother cannot remember the test's name. Which of the following is MOST likely the test Jered will be taking?
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the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
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Stanford-Binet Test
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the widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test
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The smallest, distinctive sounds of any language are:
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phonemes.
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Casual observation and intelligence tests in children younger than age 4:
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generally predict future aptitude only minimally.
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The American revision of Binet's original intelligence test was called:
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the Stanford-Binet.
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The National Institute of Mental Health is conducting a study with 50- to 75-year-old adults on memory and response time in relation to timed tasks. They are bringing in this group at the same time to compare the differences among the younger and older participants. This is a(n) _____________ study.
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cross-sectional
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Researchers studying chimpanzees in the wild report that they have found at least 39 customs that are specific to local chimpanzee groups. These differences in tool use, grooming, and courtship rituals can be accounted for by:
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cultural diversity
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During the earliest stage of speech development, infants:
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make some speech sounds that do not occur in their parents' native language.
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We more quickly recognize a blue jay than a penguin as a bird because the blue jay more closely resembles our ___________ of a bird.
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prototype
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What is the curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes?
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normal curve
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Which of the following observations provides the BEST evidence that intelligence test scores are influenced by environment?
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Identical twins raised apart are less similar in their intelligence scores than identical twins raised together.
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Florian searches for a screwdriver that is nowhere to be found. What he fails to recognize is that a coin in his pocket would easily turn the screw. This oversight best illustrates:
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a fixation.
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Dr. Simmons is interested in studying primate behavior as it is related to primate thought. If she wants to do further research on behaviors that other animal researchers have already found in primates, which of the following topics should she choose?
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group aggression, altruism, and transmission of cultural patterns
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The impact of early environmental influences on intelligence is most apparent among young children who experience:
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minimal interaction with caregivers.
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Dr. Nason and his colleagues have worked at teaching sign language to a great ape. Over the past year, they have observed the ape's slow vocabulary acquisition very closely. When their study is complete, Dr. Nason and his team are likely to find that the language acquisition of the ape is similar to that observed in:
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2-year-old humans.
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Intelligence tests are most likely to be considered biased in terms of their:
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cultural assumptions
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Mental practice has been used to try to improve academic performance. In Taylor's study, for example, students who were asked to visualize themselves studying effectively (e.g., reading chapters, going over notes, and so on) scored ______________ students who were asked to visualize themselves seeing an A on the grade list.
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higher than