Which of the following are characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD )?
Decreased need to socialize
Obsession with details
Which of the following are some biological factors in the development of schizophrenia?
People with schizophrenia have larger brain ventricles and less brain tissue in the frontal and temporal lobes.
A child whose parents both have schizophrenia has a nearly 50 percent chance of developing the disorder.
Drugs that increase the activity of dopamine neurons will increase schizophrenia symptoms.
Schizophrenia is obvious even in young children.
Which of the following are characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder?
They may exhibit repetitive behavior that can at times be harmful.
They focus on trivial details rather than social aspects of their surroundings.
They do not make eye contact or use their eyes to direct others' attention.
They show severe impairments in both verbal and nonverbal communication.
They show a lack of interest in playing.
They obsessively attempt to change the placement of things in their surroundings, such as furniture.
Match each positive symptom of schizophrenia with its description.
1. Disorganized Behavior
2. Disorganized Speech
1. Acting strangely and having problems performing many actions
2. Failing to follow a normal conversational structure
3. False sensory perceptions
4. False beliefs based on misperceptions of reality
Match each factor of the biopsychosocial model with its emphasis on the etiology of mental disorders.
1. Thoughts, emotions, personality, and learned experiences
2. Family relationships, socioeconomic status, and cultural context
3. Genetics, brain function, and neurotransmitter imbalances
Match each type of anxiety disorder with its description.
2. Social Anxiety Disorder
3. Panic Disorder
4. Specific Phobia
5. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
1. Fear of being in a situation from which one cannot escape
2. Fear of being negatively evaluated by others in a social setting
3. Sudden attacks of overwhelming terror
4. Fear of something that is disproportionate to the threat
5. Nearly constant anxiety not associated with one specific thing
Place in order the steps a psychologist must take to investigate and understand a disorder.
1. Determine the etiology of the disorder
2. Identify and assess the symptoms of the disorder
3. Group symptoms into meaningful categories to make a diagnosis
4. Identify possible treatments
How can psychological factors lead to the development of depression?
People who are experiencing many negative events believe they are powerless to avoid them, so they have no motivation to make positive changes.
People's negative thoughts about themselves, their situations, and the future influence each other and contribute to depression.
When someone's friends stop hanging out with her because she is a bummer, this may make her depression worse.
The more social connections one has, regardless of closeness, the less prone she is to depression.
Operant conditioning reinforces feelings of depression.
Which of the following factors play a role in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?
Those with PTSD often have chronic tension, anxiety, and health problems.
People with certain genetic markers linked to serotonin may be more likely to develop PTSD.
The memory of a traumatic event for people with PTSD is "overconsolidated" so the person is always on the alert to experience a similar situation.
People with PTSD block or ignore stimuli that remind them of traumatic events.
Which of the following factors may put a person at risk for developing borderline personality disorder?
Being raised by unavailable or unreliable caretakers
Experiencing physical or sexual abuse
Being raised by caregivers who encouraged dependence
Observing extreme violence
Experiencing no physiological reaction to punishment
Which of the following are characteristics of agoraphobia?
Someone with agoraphobia will deal with the problem by avoiding open or crowded spaces.
Someone with agoraphobia might fear being in a crowded shopping mall or subway.
Panic attacks occur randomly and unpredictably, seemingly out of nowhere.
About half of those who suffer from agoraphobia do not experience panic attacks.
Which of the following factors may lead to the development of a dissociative disorder?
Children develop DID to cope with abuse by pretending it is happening to someone else
Most people diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder are women who were severely abused as children.
Someone with a dissociative disorder may have split off a traumatic event in order to protect his sense of self.
Someone with a history of multiple types of traumas will develop a single "abused" personality to deal with the traumas.
Match each person's symptoms and circumstances with the disorder he or she may be at high risk for developing.
1. Social Anxiety
4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
5. Bipolar I
1. As a child, Ellie, who displayed an inhibited personality, overreacted to new situations by crying.
2. Within a few years, Jane's oldest son, her father, and her husband died.
3. Billy stepped on a beehive and got stung all over; now when he hears buzzing sounds, his blood pressure increases and he sweats.
4. Sarah felt very anxious after shaking hands with someone who looked like he had a cold, but washing her hands made her feel better.
5. When Joseph was young, his father would periodically exhibit extremely elevated moods and take Joseph on long, wild road trips. After returning home from these binges, his father was exhausted for extended periods of time.
Match each way of assessing a patient's symptoms with its description.
4. Psychological Testing
1. The psychologist asks the patient about her symptoms and about recent experiences that may have caused distress.
2. The psychologist assesses the client's behavior, including degree of eye contact and behavior around others.
3. The patient fills out a questionnaire to identify symptoms and causes of distress.
4. The client performs actions, such as copying a picture, that require abilities such as planning, coordinating, or remembering.
Classify the descriptions as applying to either borderline personality disorder or antisocial personality disorder.
Borderline Personality Disorder:
Involves a desperate need to be in an exclusive and dependent relationship
Characterized by disturbances in identity, moods, and impulse control
Much more common in woman than in men
Antisocial Personality Disorder:
Much more common in men than in women
Involves a willingness to take advantage of people for the sake of immediate gratification
Characterized by disregard for and violation of the rights of others
Identify the true and false statements about the prevalence of psychopathology.
The most common disorders are depression, anxiety, ADHD, and substance abuse disorder.
About 1 in 4 Americans over age 18 has a psychological disorder in any given year.
About 1 in 2 Americans will develop a psychological disorder at some point in their lives.
Psychological disorders are second only to cancer and heart disease as a cause of disability in developed countries.
Depression is more common in men, whereas antisocial personality disorder is more common in women.
Which of the following factors predispose one to developing a psychological disorder, according to the diathesis-stress model?
Presence of Stressful Events
Culture that disapproves of strange behaviors
Identify the steps involved in the flowchart for treating a client for a possible psychological disorder.
Classify the descriptions as applying to either obsessive-compulsive personality disorder or OCD .
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder:
Patient may feel compelled to eat the same food at precisely the same time and read the newspaper in a particular order.
Characterized by excessive neatness and orderliness.
Behavior is only viewed by the patient as problematic when it interferes with normal activities, such as traveling or maintaining relationships.
Patient may feel compelled to constantly wash his hands.
Rituals often cause distress to the patient.
Characterized by specific obsessions and compulsions.
Match each dissociative disorder with its description.
1. Dissociative Amnesia
3. Dissociative Fugue
1. Memory loss of a block of time or event
2. Two or more distinct identities in one person
3. Loss of identity and traveling to a new location
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