Nutrition Chapter 6

25 July 2022
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Amino acids that cannot be made by the adult human body are termed: Answers: essential. hydrolyzable. incomplete. complete.
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essential.
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Heating a protein causes: Answers: transamination. deamination. denaturation. all of these.
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denaturation.
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Protein requirements are in part based on a person's: Answers: body weight. age. health status. all of these are correct.
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all of these are correct.
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To estimate protein requirements, you must know a person's: Answers: body weight. urinary ammonia output. height. all of these would be required,
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body weight.
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The specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain is determined by Answers: The types of food proteins that a person consumes. DNA found in the nucleus of cells. GI tract peptidases. Random interactions between free amino acids in the cytoplasm of cells.
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DNA found in the nucleus of cells.
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Which of the following is the best dietary source of isoflavones? Answers: Whole milk Soy products Citrus fruits Beef
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Soy products
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__________________ are at increased risk of not getting adequate vitamin B12 in their diet. Answers: Lacto-ovo vegetarians Trained athletes Vegan vegetarians Pregnant and lactating women
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Vegan vegetarians
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Food allergies involve an interaction between a dietary protein and: Answers: the immune system. the excretory system. DNA. RNA.
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the immune system.
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Which of the following is a physical characteristic associated with Kwashiorkor? Answers: Bloated abdomen Excess sweating Tall stature Hypertrophic (enlarged) leg mus
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Bloated abdomen
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Which nutrient(s) found in animal protein foods is not found in plant protein foods? Answers: Saturated fat B vitamins Phytochemicals None of these nutrients are found in plant protein foods
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Saturated fat
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Obtaining protein from plant foods may be advantageous because plant foods: Answers: are typically good sources of fiber. may contain healthy poly- and mono- unsaturated fats. may lower blood cholesterol when consumed regularly. all of these statements are correct
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all of these statements are correct.
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The primary source of protein for most of the world's population is: Answers: meat. dairy. grains and vegetables. fruits.
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grains and vegetables.
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Which of the following functions is performed by proteins in the body? Answers: Transport Structure Immunity All of these functions are performed by proteins.
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All of these functions are performed by proteins
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Kwashiorkor is best characterized by: Answers: severe protein deficiency in young children. increased susceptibility to food allergies in adults. misshapen (sickle-shaped) red blood cells. the inability to digest proteins from soy and other plant proteins.
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severe protein deficiency in young children.
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Regular soy consumption may help: Answers: increase fertility. lower blood LDL cholesterol levels. improve athletic performance. reduce muscle fatigue.
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lower blood LDL cholesterol levels.
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Vegetarians have a lower risk of: Answers: diabetes. cardiovascular disease. high blood pressure. all of these are correct.
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all of these are correct.
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All of the following components are always associated with an amino acid EXCEPT: Answers: an amino group. an acid group. a phosphate group. a side chain (functional group).
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a phosphate group.
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A limiting amino acid: Answers: does not supply the element nitrogen. is present in short supply relative to the body's need. cannot be used by the body during protein synthesis. is used to synthesize non-protein molecules that contain nitrogen.
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is present in short supply relative to the body's need.
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Hemoglobin is an example of: Answers: a defense protein. a transport protein. an enzyme. an immune protein (antibody).
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a transport protein.
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The three-dimensional shape of a protein is determined by the: Answers: ratio of nonessential to essential amino acids present in the polypeptide chain. sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain. carbon to nitrogen ratio in the polypeptide chain. the number of peptide bonds present in the polypeptide chain.
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sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain.
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In the US, most dietary protein comes from:. Answers: animal sources. beans. nuts. vegetables.
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animal sources.
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Protein complementation is most important for people who are: Answers: vegan vegetarians. recovering from surgery. lacto-ovo vegetarians. consumers of both plant and animal foods.
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vegan vegetarians
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Which of the following is TRUE of protein needs in athletes? Answers: Strength and endurance athletes may require 50-100% more protein than the RDA. Protein supplements are not typically necessary as long as kcal needs are met. It is unlikely that protein requirements in excess of the AMDR would be required. All of these statements are correct.
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All of these statements are correct.
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Protein-energy malnutrition is characterized by: Answers: increased susceptibility to food allergies. wasting and increased susceptibility to infection. excessive urinary output. hyperglycemia.
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wasting and increased susceptibility to infection.
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The amino acid pool refers to amino acids: Answers: which are soluble in bodily fluids. present in body tissues and fluids and that are available for protein synthesis or to generate ATP. which are used by the body for building muscle tissue. which the body is not able to make and must be supplied by the diet.
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present in body tissues and fluids and that are available for protein synthesis or to generate ATP.
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Gene expression and protein synthesis involve: Answers: messenger RNA. transcription. translation. all of these choices.
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all of these choices
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Proteins regulate which of the following body processes? Answers: Acid-base balance Fluid balance Muscle contraction All of these are correct
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All of these are correct
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Complete protein sources can be found in which MyPyramid food group? Answers: Fats and oils Fruits and vegetables Dairy Grains
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Dairy
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Which statement about dietary protein sources is FALSE? Animal products are the most highly concentrated sources of protein. Plant sources of protein are typically rich in fiber and phytochemicals. Legumes provide about as much protein per ½ cup serving as a cup of milk. Most people in the U.S. need protein supplements to meet dietary requirements.
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Most people in the U.S. need protein supplements to meet dietary requirements.
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A pattern of food intake that eliminates all animal products is called:. Answers: lacto-ovo vegetarian. vegan vegetarian. phyto vegetarian. pesco vegetarian.
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vegan vegetarian.
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Isoflavones are chemically similar to the hormone: Answers: testosterone. cortisol. estrogen. insulin.
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estrogen.
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Food allergies can result when a protein in the diet: Answers: is not absorbed and is eliminated in the feces. is filtered out of the blood and into the urine. is absorbed without being completely digested. provides amino acids that are not normally found in the human body.
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is absorbed without being completely digested.
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The basic building blocks of proteins are:. Answers: monosaccharides. amino acids. sterols. ketone bodies.
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amino acids
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An antibody: Answers: is a type of protein that helps protect the body from foreign substances. catalyzes chemical reactions in the body. helps circulate lipids in the blood. regulates the acid-base balance (pH) in the body.
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is a type of protein that helps protect the body from foreign substances.
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Protein denaturation can: Answers: alter the three-dimensional shape of a protein. decrease the nutritional value of a protein. alter the sequence of amino acids in a protein. break the peptide bonds holding a protein together.
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Correct
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A(n) ____________ bond links one amino acid to the next. Answers: disulfide ionic glycosidic peptide
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peptide
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Protein quality is determined by:. Answers: comparing the non-essential amino acid profile in a food with that in a reference protein. the biological activity of the actin and myosin filaments in meat products. how efficiently a protein in the diet can be used to make body proteins. the ratio of nonessential to essential amino acids present in a food.
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how efficiently a protein in the diet can be used to make body proteins.
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The synthesis of glucose from certain amino acids involves:. Answers: deamination. transcription. translation. transamination.
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deamination.
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Which of the following terms can be used to describe a protein? Answers: Polypeptide Branched amino acid chain Polysaccharide Monopeptide
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polypeptide
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Vegan vegetarians may not get enough of which nutrient(s)? Answers: Iron and zinc Vitamin B12 Calcium and vitamin D All these nutrients could be low
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All these nutrients could be low
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Protein differs from carbohydrate and lipid in that protein:. Answers: does not provide the body with a source of energy. is classified as an inorganic molecule. contains the element nitrogen. is not considered to be an essential nutrient.
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contains the element nitrogen.
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Which statement about amino acid absorption is FALSE? Answers: Absorption of larger polypeptides occurs commonly in healthy adults. Groups of similar amino acids share the same transport system. If one amino acid is supplemented, it can slow the absorption of other amino acids. Dipeptides and tripeptides are broken down to individual amino acids before leaving the mucosal cells of the small intestine.
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Absorption of larger polypeptides occurs commonly in healthy adults
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Which of the following is a TRUE statement? Answers: Protein requirements decrease during injury and illness. Most Americans do not consume enough protein. The amount of protein used by the body is estimated by calculating nitrogen losses. All of these statements are true.
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The amount of protein used by the body is estimated by calculating nitrogen losses.
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Protein complementation is a technique which: Answers: increases the biological value of a protein. increases the nitrogen content of dietary protein sources. minimizes nitrogen loss in the urine. combines proteins from different sources so that essential amino acids requirements are met.
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combines proteins from different sources so that essential amino acids requirements are met.
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The waste product resulting from the deamination of a protein is: Answers: ketone bodies. urea. lactate. CO2.
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urea.
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A complete dietary protein: Answers: contains the element sulfur. has been hydrolyzed so that digestion is not necessary. provides essential amino acids in the proportion needed to support protein synthesis. has a low biological value.
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provides essential amino acids in the proportion needed to support protein synthesis.
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Which of the following is most likely to result from a chronic deficiency of protein and energy? Answers: PKU Marasmus Gallstones Increased resistance to infection
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Marasmus
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Positive nitrogen balance can occur: Answers: when an individual is wasting as a result of protein-energy malnutrition. if protein intake does not meet an individual's protein requirements. in a rapidly growing child. when total body nitrogen balance does not change for 30 days.
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in a rapidly growing child.
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Which nutrient is found in plant protein foods but not in animal protein foods? Answers: Iron Zinc Calcium Fiber
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Fiber
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A measure of protein quality determined by comparing the amount of nitrogen retained in the body with the amount absorbed from the diet is called the: Answers: chemical score. biological value. protein efficiency ratio. net protein utilization
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biological value.