Micro Ch17

25 July 2022
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Antigen processing and presentation
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is a way for a cell to give information about its activities.
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Why would a body cell that is not a phagocyte need to present antigens?
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Non-phagocytic body cells can become infected with a virus
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How do phagocytes communicate to other cells what they have captured?
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They present antigens from engulfed foreign cells
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Which of the following best characterizes clonal selection?
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The production of identical B cells producing the same antibody
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An antigen that is potent enough to activate a B cell on its own is known as
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T-independent antigens
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What is produced by the process of clonal expansion?
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Plasma cells and memory B cells
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Based on the animation, T cells recognized the antigen displayed by what protein of the B cell?
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MHC
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How can a sufficient humoral immune response occur if a plasma cell only lives for a few days?
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Each plasma cell can produce up to 2000 antibodies every second
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What is apoptosis?
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The process of programmed cell death
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What is the function of the CD8 receptor?
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Bind to MHC molecules
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What is the fate of activated cytotoxic T-cells?
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They proliferate into a clone of cells specific to the same antigen; some of these cells then differentiate into long-lived memory T-cells, while others mature to attack infected cells
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Which molecule triggers apoptosis?
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Granzyme
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Which event happens first during cytotoxic T-cell activation?
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CD8 binds to MHC molecules of infected cells
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Which receptor on the helper T-cell recognizes the specific antigen from an antigen-presenting cell?
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TCR
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TH2 cells produce cytokines that activate
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B cells
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Which proteins on the antigen-presenting cell are recognized by the helper T-cell?
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MHC proteins
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When do helper T-cells develop into TH1 or TH2 cells?
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After proliferation into a clonal population
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Natural killer cells are activated by
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TH1 cells
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Phagocytosis is a process for engulfing large particles (>1Ξm). Which feature of antibodies will help to make particles larger, therefore enhancing phagocytosis?
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agglutination
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The flu virus mutates fairly frequently. Its adhesive proteins change such that we have different "strains" of influenza each year. When a particular flu virus mutates such that its adhesive proteins change, which function of antibodies is disrupted?
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neutralization
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__________________ stimulated with ___________ differentiate into __________, which secrete antibodies into the bloodstream.
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B-cells, antigen, plasma cells
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Innate immunity
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Includes cilia, mucous, membranes, dendritic cells
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Humoral immunity
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Immunological response brought about by antibody production
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Immunological response that kills infected host cells
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Cellular immunity
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Immature B cells
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Uses BCRs to regognize epitope. 1st step in clonal selection
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Dendritic Cells
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Phagocytes that engulf anything foreign. Eventually display epitope to helper T-cells isng MHC 1 or 2
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T-h cells
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Lymphocytes that activate B cells and CTLs
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Memory Cells
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Differentiated B cells that are stored in lymph nodes to provide protection against future infections by the same pathogen
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Plasma cells
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produce and secrete antibodies
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Cytotoxic T-cells
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Kills infected host cells