mana last test

26 June 2024
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1. Which of the following statements is NOT correct according to the proponents of interactional psychology?
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a. Behavior is a function of heredity and physical stature.
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2. All of the following are examples of individual differences except:
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norming
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3. Which of the following, according to Charles Spearman, is considered the single best predictor of work performance across many occupations and across different cultures?
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General mental ability
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4. The approach to the study of personality that focuses on both person (dispositions) and situational variables as combined predictors of behavior is known as .
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the integrative approach
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5. ____________ is the relatively stable set of characteristics that influences an individual's behavior and lends it consistency.
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Personality
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6. Personality is primarily shaped by:
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a person's heredity and the environment.
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7. Which traits are associated with less absenteeism at work?
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Introversion and conscientiousness
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8. The traits associated with high-performing employees are:
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c. conscientiousness and emotional stability.
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9. Which of the following is not considered one of the Big Five personality traits?
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Heredity
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10. Individuals possessing an internal locus of control:
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prefer participative management styles.
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11. As a supervisor of a group of employees, all of whom have an internal locus of control, you should:
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allow them considerable leeway in determining how to perform their work.
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12. Which of the following statements regarding internals and externals is FALSE?
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Internals appreciate more structured work settings and externals don't react well to close supervision
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13. Generalized self-efficacy is the general:
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belief about one's own abilities to perform effectively in a wide variety of situations.
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14. Which of the following is one of the most important determinants of high self-efficacy?
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c. Previous success
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15. Denise and Teresa are two students in a course on organizational behavior. Denise outperforms Teresa on the first exam in OB, and Teresa convinces herself that Denise is not really a good person to compare herself to because Denise is a psychology major and Teresa is majoring in accounting. Which of the following is the best explanation for Teresa's reaction?
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Teresa's high self-esteem is protecting her from this unfavorable comparison.
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16. Which of the following is NOT a component of CSE?
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General mental ability
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17. As a manager who understands the implications of self-esteem on work behavior, you should:
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d. give them appropriate challenges and opportunities for success.
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18. Positive affectivity is likely to be displayed by:
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d. internals, or those with an internal locus of control.
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19. Managers who want to promote positive affectivity should:
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a. allow participative decision making.
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20. The extent to which people base their behavior on cues from other people and situations refers to:
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d. self-monitoring.
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21. When predicting behavior, an important idea to remember concerns the extent to which a situation overwhelms the effects of individual personalities by providing cues for appropriate behavior. This type of situation is called a(n)
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d. strong situation
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22. Which of the following personality types would most likely display the most consistent behavior "across situations"?
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d. Low self-monitor
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23. A person who is unconstrained by his or her situation and shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until he or she effects change has:
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c. a proactive personality.
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24. A problem frequently associated with self report methods for assessing one's personality includes:
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c. the respondents' ability to view themselves objectively.
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25. A count of the times a student asks a question or makes a comment in an organizational behavior course is an example of .
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d. behavioral measure of personality
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26. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory:
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d. is used to diagnose neurotic disorders.
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27. A problem with the behavioral measure for personality would be:
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d. the observer's ability to stay focused.
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28. The MBTI is a:
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b. way to identify and understand individual differences.
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29. According to the MBTI a successful top executive is likely to have preferences for .
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d. extraversion, sensing, thinking, and judging
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30. The basic preference in type theory that represents where you find energy is the:
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a. extraversion/introversion preference.
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31. According to the Jungian approach to personality, the basic preference that reflects what we pay attention to or how we prefer to gather information is:
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b. sensing/intuiting.
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32. Jung contended that the most important distinction between individuals was the:
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a. extravert/introvert preference.
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33. All of the following are characteristics of the target of one's perceptions, except:
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d. the purpose of interaction.
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34. is the process of interpreting information about another person.
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b. Social perception
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35. The three major categories of factors that influence our perception of another person include:
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characteristics of ourselves, the target person, and the situation.
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36. The ability of an individual to perceive multiple characteristics of another person rather than attend to just a few traits is a function of their:
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d. cognitive complexity.
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37. Which of the following is NOT an important characteristic of the perceiver that can affect social perception?
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d. The strength of social cues
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38. All of the following are characteristics of the target that influence social perception except:
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d. cognitive complexity.
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39. The discounting principle is a characteristic of the:
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a. situation.
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40. An employee who does not get along well with other employees but generates the most sales is evaluated only on sales performance. This is an example of:
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d. selective perception.
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41. A supervisor's high expectations of a new employee and the subsequent high performance of that employee is an example of .
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d. self-fulfilling prophecy
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42. The primacy effect is also known as
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c. first-impression error
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43. Assume you are an employment interviewer. An applicant's physical appearance could cause you to commit an incorrect hiring decision because of all of the following except:
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self-fulfilling prophecy
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44. Increasing workforce diversity is likely to reduce as a barrier to social perception.
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d. stereotyping
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45. Suppose, for example, that a sales manager is evaluating the performance of his employees. One employee does not get along well with colleagues and rarely completes sales reports on time. This employee, however, generates the most new sales contracts in the office. The sales manager chooses to ignore the negative information and evaluates the salesperson only on contracts generated. The manager is exercising:
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b. selective perception.
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46. When a female softball player is given more applause for a home run hit than a male teammate, it would most likely be due to:
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d. contrast against a stereotype.
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47. Attribution theory helps to behavior in organizations.
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b. explain causes of
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48. An achievement-oriented sales representative might attribute his failure to meet a monthly sales quota to:
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a lack of effort.
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49. Individuals who make external attributions will be more likely to:
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c. develop feelings of incompetence that may lead to depression.
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50. Achievement-oriented individuals attribute their success to
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b. ability
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51. Achievement-oriented individuals attribute their failures to:
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c. lack of effort.
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52. Research shows that successful candidates make:
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c. more internal attributions for negative events.
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53. When a student attributes a high test grade to his or her diligent study habits and a low grade to the instructor's poorly worded questions, the student is displaying:
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d. self-serving bias.
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54. Attributional biases imply that managers must:
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c. know as much as possible about individual differences and determine the causes of behavior.
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55. The tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else's behavior is:
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b. known as the fundamental attribution error.
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56. When a manager makes the attribution that an employee's lack of effort or ability is the basis for poor performance, they are probably making an error called
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a. fundamental attribution
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57. A person from a fatalistic culture like India would be more likely than someone from China to:
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d. make an external attribution
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58. GMA is considered a personality characteristic.
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False
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59. Personality is defined as a relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual's behavior.
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True
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60. Heredity has been found to NOT be a determinant of personality.
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False
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61. The integrative approach to personality emphasizes individual growth and improvement.
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False
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62. Persons with high self-esteem and internal locus of control tend to be higher performers and are more satisfied with their jobs.
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True
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63. High self-monitors can adjust their behavior to fit the situation.
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True
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64. A problem with self-report measure for assessing personality is that people often answer the questionnaires in terms of how they want to be seen, rather than as they really are.
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a. True
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65. Mood is a state that has been found to be relatively stable and therefore contributes to the objective accuracy of perception.
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False
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66. An example of a first impression error would be where speakers with higher vocal pitch are believed to be more competent than those with lower voices.
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True
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67. CEO's have been found to manage impressions by publicizing changes that seem to address financial analysts' concerns without changing organizational policy.
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True
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68. High achievers are more likely to attribute their success to others and good luck.
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False
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69. The Pygmalion effect usually is associated with reduced output.
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False
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70. The basis for understanding individual differences stems from Lewin's early contention that behavior is a function of the person and the environment. This idea has been developed by the interactional psychology approach to personality. Briefly explain the basic propositions of this approach.
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There are four basic propositions of interactional psychology: (1) behavior is a function of a continuous, multidirectional interaction between the person and the situation, (2) the person is active in this process, both changing situations and being changed by them, (3) people vary in many characteristics, including cognitive, affective, motivational, and ability factors, and (4) two aspects of a situation are important: the objective situation and the person's subjective view of the situation.
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71. Using the five personality characteristics identified as important for understanding organizational behavior, describe an individual who would most likely be a strong performer.
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An internal locus of control, high self-esteem, high self-efficacy, moderate to high self-monitoring, and positive affectivity are likely to be displayed by a high performer.
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72. Identify and explain barriers to social perception.
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Five barriers to social perception are selective perception, stereotyping, first- impression error, projection, and self-fulfilling prophecies. Stereotyping stems from generalizing about a group of people. Selective perception involves using only information that supports one's preconceived view of someone. One's initial interaction with another may lead to an incorrect conclusion or first impression error. Pet theories one has of behavior may produce inaccurate perception. A self-fulfilling prophecy occurs in a situation where one's expectations about people affect interaction with them in such a way that expectations are fulfilled.
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The way in which factors such as skills, abilities, personalities, values, and ethics vary from one person to another
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Individual differences
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A relatively stable set of characteristics that influences one's behavior
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Personality
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This approach believes that behavior is a function of the person and his or her environment
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Interactional psychology
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Tendencies of persons to respond to situations in consistent ways
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Dispositions
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A person's general feeling of self-worth
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Self-esteem
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A broad set of personality traits that refers to self-concept and is comprised of locus of control, self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, and emotional stability
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Core self-evaluation
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One's generalized belief about situational and self-control
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Locus of control
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The broad theory that describes personality as a composite of an individual's psychological processes
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Integrative approach
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The extent to which people base their behavior on cues from others and the situation
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Self-monitoring
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Positive and negative mood dispositions at work
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Affectivity
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A popular instrument based on Jungian personality theory
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MBTI
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Direct indices of personality
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Behavioral measures
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The person who suggested that human similarities and differences could be understood by combining preferences
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Carl Jung
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A projective test or measure of personality
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Rorschach ink blot test
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The person who believed that behavior is a function of the person and environment
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Kurt Lewin
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A widely used self-report questionnaire that assesses a variety of psychological disorders
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MMPI
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Energized by interaction with others
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Extrovert
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Prefers a flexible, more spontaneous life
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Perceiver
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Pays attention to data gathered through physical senses
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Sensor
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Likes closure
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Judging preference
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Logical decision maker
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Thinker