Introduction to Psychology- Test One

19 June 2024
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question
Penelope studies how the structure and function of the nervous system is related to behavior. she is a....?
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bio-psychologist
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which of the following exemplifies a personality trait? A) ida is charming B) james has blue eyes C) marsha has 3 kids
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ida is charming
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conduct research on personnel management, workplace environment, product and efficiency
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industrial- organization
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identify relatively consistent patterns of thought and behavior, measure these traits, and determine how these traits interact in a particular context to determine how a person will behave...conducting research in what?
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personality
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Char heard from her friends that marijuana use can cure glaucoma so it should be legal in all 50 states. Char knows that she is biased in favor of marijuana legalization, so she decides to exercise some skepticism about this claim. She researches where her friends got their information, how reliable it is, and what other sources say about legalizing marijuana. Char is ________.
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thinking critically
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Which of the following exemplifies the unconditional positive regard component of client-centered therapy?
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abby tells her therapist that she tripped a small child who got in her way, and her therapist accecpts this information without judgement
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When studying personality traits, someone who is hardworking, dependable, and organized will score high on the ________ trait.
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conscientiousness
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Which kind of psychologist would be consulted in jury selection and witness preparation?
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forensic
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Which of the following exemplifies the empirical method?
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dr. sarkeesian observes and records how watching cartoons influences heart rates
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A series of dots arranged in the shape of a face will be perceived as a face, not a series of dots. A psychologist studying this phenomenon is applying the principals of ________.
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gestalt psychology
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What do industrial and organizational psychology, health psychology, sport and exercise psychology, forensic psychology, and clinical psychology all have in common?
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they are all examples of applied psychology
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Which of the following is an example of research someone might conduct in the area of health psychology?
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whether people working at a desk are more likely to be obese
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Lucy wants to study changes in cognitive skills, moral reasoning, and social behavior across the lifespan. Lucy should specialize in ________ psychology
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developmental
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Susan wants to study prejudice, attraction, how we explain our own behavior versus how we explain the behavior of others, and how we resolve interpersonal conflicts. Susan should conduct research in the area of ________.
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social psychology
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Dr. Bogdarian noticed that one of her students addresses her with the word mother instead of the word professor or doctor. Dr. Bogdarian applies the principles of ________, and hypothesizes the student misspeaks because he is unconsciously associating her with his mother.
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psychoanalytic theory
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If you show an adult a toy, and then hide it behind a curtain, the adult knows that the toy still exists. However, infants act as if a hidden object no longer exists. What does this exemplify?
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object permanence
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Guillermo spends some time each day applying the principles of structuralism to examine his own conscious experience as carefully as possible. Guillermo is engaged in ________.
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introspection
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I provide Ralph with the positive reinforcement of a candy bar when he does something I like. I punish him by squirting him with a squirt gun when he does something I don t like. I am applying the principles of ________ in an attempt to modify Ralph s behavior.
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operant conditioning
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Which of the following is not involved in critical thinking?
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knowing your opinion is correct
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When studying personality traits, someone who is quiet, reserved, and withdrawn will score low on the ________ trait.
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extroversion
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Patwardhan et al. report data from a study where they hired experimental confederates to attend speed dating events, posing as daters, and carefully take notes on the behaviors of the daters. What type of research design did they use?
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naturalistic observation
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Which of the following represents a weak positive correlation? a) -0.9 b) 0 c) +0.2 d) +0.9
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+0.2
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of a good hypothesis?
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it is complex
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One hundred introductory psychology students are surveyed about their intended majors. The results indicate that more women than men intend to pursue a psychology major, whereas more men than women intend to pursue a history major. What do these results indicate?
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there is a relationship between gender and intended major
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Scientific knowledge is advanced through a process known as ________.
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the scientific method
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Which of the following research designs will allow cause-and-effect conclusions?
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experimental
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Research shows that people who smoke cigarettes are more likely to get lung cancer than those who do not smoke. This research alone demonstrates that ________.
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there is a relationship between smoking and lung cancer
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Drs. Goran and Lieberman are interested in assessing differences in pain threshold between men and women. They recruit male and female participants to a study that assesses tolerance for thermal pain. This is an example of a(n) ________ study.
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quasi-experiment
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The belief that strange behavior is linked to the occurrence of a full moon is an example of a(n) ________.
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illusory correlation
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An intelligence test yields the same results when administered on three separate occasions. However, the test s results are more strongly correlated with hours spent doing homework than they are with other standardized intelligence tests. This test has________ reliability and ________ validity.
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high; low
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Which of the following statements is not a hypothesis? a) Aggressive behaviors in female rats will be increased by testosterone administration, compared to a control group. b) College students with higher conscientiousness will achieve higher overall GPAs than those with lower conscientiousness. c) Anxiety disorders are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental influences. d) Rats with damage to their cerebellum will display deficits in motor coordination, using the rotarod test.
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c) Anxiety disorders are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental influences.
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A group of preschool-age children are enrolled in a study that plans to follow them over time in order to assess behaviors and other characteristics that may predict later development of schizophrenia. This is an example of a(n) ________ design.
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longitudinal
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Sandra strongly believes that attending daycare is detrimental to children s development so she decides to write her psychology term paper on this topic. She does a literature search and finds several sources supporting her opinion, but she finds that the majority of research indicates that children attending daycare experience healthy development. She writes a paper using the sources that find negative associations with daycare attendance. This is an example of ________.
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confirmation bias
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Devine et al. are interested in assessing whether active versus passive play causes a preference for sweet or salty foods in toddlers. They assign groups of children to either an active play, passive play, or no play group and record their food choices when presented with a variety of sweet and salty foods. In this study, ________ is the independent variable and ________ is the control group.
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type of play; no play
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In order to maximize the chances that experimental groups represent the population of interest, researchers should conduct ________ and ________.
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random sampling; random group assignment
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Spurling et al. investigated the effects of two vocabulary learning strategies on word retention two weeks later. In this example, learning strategy is the ________ variable and word retention is the ________ variable.
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independent; dependent
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Which of the following research designs will allow cause-and-effect conclusions?
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experimental
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A(n) ________ is a description of how the researchers will measure the variables of interest.
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operational definition theory
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Patwardhan et al. report data from a study where they hired experimental confederates to attend speed dating events, posing as daters, and carefully take notes on the behaviors of the daters. What type of research design did they use?
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naturalistic obersvation survey
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Which correlation coefficient best represents a moderate relationship showing fewer anxiety symptoms in people who report higher life satisfaction? a) -0.5 b) -0.2 c) +0.4 d) +0.7
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-0.5
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Dr. Mattar is interested in knowing more about brain injury to the occipital cortex, and he studies patients individually in order to gain in-depth knowledge about their behaviors. These studies would best be described as ________.
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case studies
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Which of the following would be difficult to assess using empirical research?
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whether the id, ego, superego is most responsible for emotional reactions
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Which of the following would be the best example of a valid naturalistic observation study in driving behavior?
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watching footage obtained from cameras set up unobtrusively on various streets
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The ________ nervous system is responsible for responses such as pupil dilation, increased heart rate, and increased respiration.
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sympathetic
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The ________ connects the brain and the spinal cord.
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pons
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Parsons et al. are doing a study comparing differences in brain activity levels between patients with schizophrenia and controls with no psychological disorders. Their hypothesis requires a high level of detail and good detection of differences over time. Which of the following is the best brain imaging technique to use?
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functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
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The ________ is involved in our experience of emotion and tying emotional meaning to our memories.
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amygdala
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Rosemary had a stroke about a year ago and now she cannot understand what people are saying to her. This is embarrassing for her, so she responds using vague language and tries to make it appear as though she understands. Which area of Rosemary's brain was likely damaged by the stroke?
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wernicks's area
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The ________ is the deep groove that separates the brain into two halves.
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longitudinal fissure
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Jennifer has been depressed for several months, and she decided to take an overdose of sleeping pills. After taking the pills, her breathing rate decreased dramatically, her heart slowed down, and her blood pressure decreased. Which brain structure is the drug acting on?
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medulla
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Elaina has been diagnosed with a small brain tumor. She first went to see her doctor after experiencing symptoms such as feeling very cold, almost fainting, a reduced appetite, and reduced sexual desire. Which of the following structures is her tumor most likely affecting?
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hypothalamus
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Kelsey had a CT scan that showed a tumor in the right frontal cortex. Which of the following behavioral symptoms most likely prompted the scan to take place?
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motor skill deficits in the left side of her body
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Ainsley is participating in a study that aims to determine whether the occipital cortex becomes more active in response to moving versus stationary stimuli. When she arrives at the lab, she ingests a tracer and then enters the scanning machine. What type of brain imaging is most likely being conducted in this study?
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positron emission tomography (PET)
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People who have their corpus callosum severed for medical reasons would be able to tell you about which images shown to ________.
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only the right visual field
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The ________ is involved in our experience of emotion and tying emotional meaning to our memories.
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amygdala
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Dmitris is in a car accident and his parietal lobe is injured. Which of the following is the most likely behavioral effect of his accident?
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no sensation in his legs and feet
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The ________ of a neuron contain ________ that house neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers of the nervous system.
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terminal buttons; synaptic vesicles
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A particular electrical signal being transmitted to a neuron is sufficient to generate an action potential. If the magnitude of the incoming electrical signal is doubled, the action potential will ________.
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undergo no changes in strength, speed, or duration
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________ is a state of equilibrium, in which biological conditions (such as body temperature) are maintained at optimal levels.
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homeostasis
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The ________ nervous system is responsible for stimulating digestion and causing the bladder to contract.
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parasympathetic
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Of adoptees whose biological mothers had schizophrenia and who were raised in disturbed family environments, 36.8% were likely to develop schizophrenia; of adoptees whose mothers did not have schizophrenia and who were raised in disturbed family environments, 5.3% were likely to develop schizophrenia. What is the most appropriate conclusion of these results?
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Environmental factors and genetic factors interact to determine whether a person is likely to develop schizophrenia.
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Wendy's mother has blue eyes and her father has brown eyes. The allele for brown eye color is dominant (B) to the allele for blue eye color (b), but Wendy has blue eyes. Therefore, Wendy's ________ must be ________ and her father s must be Bb.
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genotype; bb
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Kelsey had a CT scan that showed a tumor in the right frontal cortex. Which of the following behavioral symptoms most likely prompted the scan to take place?
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motor skills deficits in the left side of her body
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Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the case study of Phineas Gage's accident, which led to brain injury?
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Injury to the brain causes changes in behavior, and specific brain areas are linked to particular behaviors.
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A particular electrical signal being transmitted to a neuron is sufficient to generate an action potential. If the magnitude of the incoming electrical signal is doubled, the action potential will ________.
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undergo no changes in strength, speed, or duration
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concerns perceiving, recognizing, and further processing an object so that it can be later remembered
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encoding
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refers to transferring information from short-term memory to long-term memory
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storage
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concerns searching long-term memory and finding the event that has been stored and retrieved
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retrieval
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sensory memory
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seconds or fractions of a second and very large
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episodic memory-explicit memory
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memory about happenings in particular places at particular times, the what, where, and when of an event
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semantic memory-explicit memory
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knowledge about words, concepts, and language based on knowledge and facts
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example of episodic memory
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graduation, birthday, wedding
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example of semantic memory
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president, capital of north dakota, football game
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procedural memory- implicit memory
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it store information on how to do things
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emotional conditioning- implicit memory
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links perceptual information to an emotional response
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example of procedural
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riding a bike, playing piano, shoe tie
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emotional conditioning
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clown=eek puppies=awww
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4 parts of the brain involved in memory
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prefrontal cortex amygdala hippocampus cerebellum
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hippocampus
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important in consolidation of information from STM to LTM
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hippocampus
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damage to it can inhibit ability to form new memories
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prefrontal cortex
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involved in working and STM
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amygdala
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regulate emotions how memories are stored memory consolidation encoding memory
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cerebellum
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processing of procedural memories
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retrograde amnesia
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trouble with past events
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anterograde amnesia
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trouble with present events
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proactive interference
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old information hinders recall of new information
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retroactive interference
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new information hinders recall of old information
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mnemonic device
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knuckles for the months of the year