Inquisitive: Chapter 12: Family

17 June 2024
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question
What fraction of children in the United States live in blended families?
answer
1/3
question
Identify the contributing factors to neglect and abuse of children by caregivers.
answer
- low educational attainment by parents - a one-parent family arrangement - poverty
question
Identify the main tenets of the "cult of domesticity" that sprang up following the Industrial Revolution.
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- Society needs members who specialize in homemaking. - Women are naturally more nurturing than men.
question
In 1913, Bronislaw Malinowski argued that Australian Aboriginal culture did have family arrangements. Identify the social characteristics of Aboriginal families that supported Malinowski's argument.
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- giving love, affection, and care to family members - a central gathering place - a distinction between family and non-family relationships
question
Identify the correct attributes of the preindustrial family.
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- minimal division of labor between the sexes - needs met by bartering with other families
question
Which men are most likely to be competent and engaged housekeepers, cooks, and parents?
answer
single fathers
question
What conclusion can you draw about the association between women's participation in the labor force and childbearing, based on trends over the past 60 years?
answer
Higher female labor rate participation is associated with lower rates of childbearing.
question
Identify some of the implications of the recent expansion of marriage to gay and lesbian couples.
answer
- Gay and lesbian couples who marry now have numerous rights and responsibilities reserved for the institution of marriage. - Gay and lesbian marriages are recognized by government entities.
question
Kinship networks include both lateral and vertical ties. Vertical ties run between _________and thereby link members of ________ Lateral ties run between - and thereby link members of ___________.
answer
parents and their children, different generations, siblings and cousins, the same generations
question
Identify the findings that can be supported by research studies.
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- A mother working outside the home in the early years of a child's life leads to higher cognitive achievement and fewer behavioral problems. - A mother working outside the home in the early years of a child's life leads to lower cognitive achievement and increased behavioral problems. - A mother working outside the home decreases the gap between boys' and girls' adult incomes.
question
Identify the rights that come with being legally married.
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- to make medical decisions for one's spouse - to be covered by a spouse's employer-provided family health insurance - to transfer income and property to and from one's spouse, tax-free
question
In the context of feminist critiques of family structures and gender roles, what does the phrase second shift mean?
answer
it refers to the after-work homemaking chores of a wage-earning wife.
question
Identify the changes that made the family structure of the 1950s unique compared to earlier times
answer
- Men and women got married sooner. - Average family size increased. - The divorce rate dipped. - Home ownership increased.
question
Place the forms of elder abuse in order from most to least common. a) emotional abuse b) physical abuse c) financial abuse d) sexual abuse
answer
c, a, b, d
question
True/False: It wasn't until the 1960s that the divorce rate began to rise in the United States.
answer
False
question
Identify the structural features of 1950s society that made the "traditional family" possible.
answer
- low cost of living - high wages - suburban living
question
Cohabitation is a relatively recent family form in which intimate partners live together without any ____ or religious sanctions. Conflicting viewpoints depict this family form as a(n) ____ for marriage or a(n) ____arrangement.
answer
formal, practice, sinful
question
Identify the examples of a "blended" family.
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- A family in which a divorced mother of two marries a single man without any children. - A family in which a father with a young child married a mother and her child after the death of his first wife.
question
How does the impact of pecking order between siblings in poor families and the resulting social status later in life compare to well-off families?
answer
The impact is greater
question
Talcott Parsons held the view that modern industrial society needed nuclear families to produce workers. What type of theory is this?
answer
Structuralist/functionalist
question
Researchers have remarked that when husband and wife both work, the income is gendered. This means that although the ____usually makes most of the week-by-week purchasing decisions, money earned by the husband is earmarked for ___, like ____, whereas money earned by the wife is earmarked for _____-, like ____-.
answer
wife, necessities, rent, nonessentials, family outings
question
How did the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001 produce a formal ruling on the economic value of housework?
answer
A compensation fund recognized the economic value of future housework that some of those killed would have performed.
question
Which development in the 1950s made the ideal of the traditional nuclear family attainable for a large fraction of the U.S. population?
answer
A sharp rise in inflation-adjusted wages
question
Identify the consequences of the industrial-era shift in which men became the principal breadwinners in families.
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- Women became responsible for deciding most of their families' purchases. - Men had first access to all money coming into the household. - Women became dependent on men's incomes.
question
Identify the factors that explain the relative abundance of female-headed households in black communities.
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- a lack of good jobs available - a high rate of incarceration among African American men
question
In Loving v. Virginia, the Supreme Court ruled that existing state-level bans on interracial marriage were unconstitutional. Many people disagreed with this decision. They felt we all should
answer
partner up with similar people and respect endogamy
question
The Pew Research Center found that as of 2011, married women spent roughly ______ hours more per week on housework and childcare than married men do. The division of labor in the home refers to both the amount of work and how tasks are divided. Typical housework tasks are also influenced by ______.When men do housework, their contribution is often referred to as "________," and women are more likely to be in charge of daily tasks such as cooking.
answer
fifteen, gender, helping
question
Identify the reasons why slavery in the United States made the concept of a "traditional" family structure a less-viable ideal for black families.
answer
- Forced separations of spouses, siblings, and parents from children led to a more expansive definition of kinship, and thus an extended family model took root. - Slave duties often broke down the boundaries between male and female spheres of work.
question
Identify the true statements about the child raising arrangements of the Na people of southern China.
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- There is no marriage institution. - Sex involves no commitment to a partnership.
question
Identify Cherlin's explanations for the paradoxically high divorce rates in a population that claims to value marriage highly.
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- Americans have a traditionalist outlook that dates back to Colonial times. - Americans are individualistic in their life expectations.
question
Place the ethnicities in the United States in order from highest to lowest rate of exogamy.
answer
Asian americans, blacks, whites
question
Identify the statements that are generally true of single mothers on welfare.
answer
- They are better off than in a typical low-wage job. - They rely on family and friends for cash and other help.
question
Because the term miscegenation is politically and historically charged, social scientists use other terms to refer to interracial marriage. One term is exogamy. Type the other term used.
answer
outmarriage
question
Betty Friedan wrote The Feminine Mystique, published in 1963, which analyzed the downsides of being a homemaker. How did sociologists elaborate on her argument?
answer
Sociologists argued that power dynamics underlie family relationships.
question
True/False: The chances of a typical welfare recipient landing a job that pays a living wage have been estimated at roughly 1 in 100.
answer
True
question
The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that 40 percent of U.S. women born in the 1980s will never be married with children. Identify the factors that support this prediction.
answer
- a rise in the percentage of households headed by single mothers - a rise in the percentage of women who choose to be child-free
question
Identify some of the implications of the recent expansion of marriage to gay and lesbian couples.
answer
- Gay and lesbian marriages are recognized by government entities. - Gay and lesbian couples who marry now have numerous rights and responsibilities reserved for the institution of marriage.
question
Sociologists argue that people learn to "do gender" most profoundly in _____, and that it is within this arena that gender is _____ through the division of _____ within the _____.
answer
the family, performed, responsibilities, home
question
Identify the advantages that men have over women when it comes to housework.
answer
- Men are praised for "helping out." - Men's chores are on a more flexible schedule. - Men are freer to choose the chores they like. - Men's chores take up less total time.