Immune System Chapter 21

25 July 2022
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question
Which statement is true about T cells?
answer
Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2.
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Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies? They are __?__.
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Composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains
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Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?
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Passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus.
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Which of the following is a false or incorrect statement?
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After becoming immunocompetent, the naΓ―ve T cells and B cells are exported to the bone marrow where they encounter antigens.
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Which of the following does not respond to cell-mediated immunity?
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Pathogens in the lumen of the stomach
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Which of the following determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist?
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Our genes
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Which of the following cells predominate at the site of a chronic infection?
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Macrophages
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Which of the following cells is the most critical cell in immunity?
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Helps T cell
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Which of the following cells is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of antibodies?
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B or Plasma cell
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Which of the following cells enables a quick and efficient response to a second (or later) exposure to antigen?
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Memory cell
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Which immunoglobulin class is attached to the external surface of B cells and acts as an antigen receptor of the B cell?
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IgD
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What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?
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Protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses.
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The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by __?__.
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Vasodilation
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The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called __?__.
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Chemotaxis
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Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?
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Reactivity with an antibody
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Which of the following is not a complement activation pathway
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Lactate pathway
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Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?
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Replacing injured tissue with connective tissue.
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Which of these is not a type of T cell?
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Antigenic
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Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?
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Allergic contact dermatitis
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Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement? NK cells __?__.
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Are a type of neutrophil.
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Which of the following statements is incorrect or false?
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MHC Class II molecules are found only on antigen-presenting cells and T cells that have been activated in the thymus.
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Which of the following statements does not describe antigens?
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Antigens only come from microbes.
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Which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities? They __?__
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Involve IgE and the release of histamine from Mast cells and Basophils.
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Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis?
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Chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing.
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Which of the following is part of the 2nd line of defense against microorganisms?
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Phagocytes
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Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?
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Specifically for a given organ
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Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?
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Type II diabetes
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Which of the following is not a role of activated complement?
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Prevention of immediate hypersensitivity reactions.
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Which of the following is not a method by which antibodies work?
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Direct cell lysis
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Which of the following is NOT a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorders?
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A second exposure to an allergen.
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The primary immune response __?__.
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Has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells
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The Lectin pathway of complement activation relys on __?__.
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Proteins secreted by the liver that bind specifically to sugars like mannose found in bacterial cell walls.
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The classical pathway of complement activation relys on __?__.
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Antibodies binding to the target cell which then triggers the complement cascade.
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Interferons __?__.
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Interfere with viral replication within cells.
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Innate immune system defenses include __?__.
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Phagocytosis
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In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?
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Antigen
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Immunocompetence __?__.
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Is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it.
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Fever __?__.
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Occurs due to the production of chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting.
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Delayed hypersensitivities __?__.
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Include allergic contact dermatitis
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Cytotoxic T cells __?__.
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Activate the adaptive immune system
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Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed __?__.
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Opsonization
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Clonal selection of B cells __?__.
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Results in the formation of plasma cells.
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Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by __?__.
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Natural killer cells
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B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the __?__.
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Bone marrow
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B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by __?__.
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Producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
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Antibody functions include all of the following except __?__.
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Cross-linking cell-bound antigens on RBCs when blood types are properly matched.
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Missing which of the following cells will result in essentially no cellular immune response?
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Helper T cell
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Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except __?__.
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Juvenile diabetes
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Natural Killer (NK) cells __?__.
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Can kill cancer cells before the immune system is otherwise activated.
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The antibody molecule is held together by __?__ bonds.
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Disulfide
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The Alternate pathway of complement activation relys on __?__.
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Spontaneous activation as a result of the target cell not expressing inhibiting or regulatory proteins on their surface.
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T cell activation requires __?__.
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Antigen binding and co-stimulation
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Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called __?__.
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Haptens
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Select the correct statement regarding tissue grafts.
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Isografts are between identical twins.
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Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self."
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Tolerance is developed during fetal life.
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Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.
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Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection.
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Select the correct statement about immunodeficiency.
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The virus that causes HIV-AIDs recognizes CD4 receptors.
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Select the correct statement about antigens.
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Since one antigen may have many antigenic determinants, it may cause more than one type of antibody to be produced.
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Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.
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Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies.
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Regulatory T cells __?__.
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May function to prevent autoimmune reactions.
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Phagocyte mobilization involves __?__.
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Mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas.
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Opsonization is a function of complement. It refers to __?__
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A. Binding to and making materials "tasty" to phagocytes. B. Coating bacteria to allow recognition and destruction by phagocytes. C. Combining with mannose-binding lectins to alert phagocytes to the presence of bacteria. Correct D. All the above.
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Activated T cells and macrophages release __?__ to mobilize immune cells and attract othe leukocytes into the area.
answer
Cytokines