Get Fit Stay Well Ch. 1

24 June 2024
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Wellness
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-the highest level of health possible in the six dimensions. optimal soundness of mind and body -more individualized than health
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Health
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Used broadly to include everything from environmental health to the health of large populations. Historically, it has referred to the absence of disease.
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Physical fitness
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the ability to perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without undue fatigue
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Six Dimensions of Wellness
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physical, social, intellectual, spiritual, emotional, environmental
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Physical Wellness
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a state of physical health and well-being that includes body size and shape, body functioning, measures of strength and endurance, resistance to disease, sensory sharpness, endurance, flexibility
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Social Wellness
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Being able to have satisfying interpersonal relationships and maintain social connectedness
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Intellectual Wellness
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Being able to think clearly, reason objectively, analyze, and use your intelligence effectively to solve problems and meet challenges.
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Emotional Wellness
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ability to control emotions and express them appropriately at the right times; includes self-esteem, self-confidence, self-efficacy, and other emotional qualities
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Environmental Wellness
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Cultivating an appreciation for the environment and your role in preserving, protecting, and improving it; includes having access to a safe and healthy workplace
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Spiritual Wellness
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Experiencing a deep sense of purpose, meaning,or value from personal beliefs; may include religion, belief in a supreme being, and/or a feeling of unity with others and with nature.
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Wellness Continuum
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a spectrum of wellness states from average to optimal in one direction and from average to premature death in the opposite direction
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Leading cause of death among American's 20-24
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accidents and homicide
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Leading cause of death among American's of all ages
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heart disease and cancer
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average healthy life expectancy
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the years a person can expect to live without disability or major illness-67 for males, 71 for females
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hypokinetic diseases
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conditions that can be triggered or worsened by too little movement or activity-hbp, obesity, back pain
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behavior change
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an organized, deliberate effort to alter or replace an existing habit or pattern of activity
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six stages of behavior change
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precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, termination
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precontemplation
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-people have no intention of changing -may be in denial
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contemplation
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-people recognize have a problem, and begin to contemplate the need to change within nxt 6 mts -may stay in this stage for years
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preparation
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-within a month of taking action -come up with a plan
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action
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execute plans made in preparation stage
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maintenance
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-work to prevent relapse into old habits -you are in stage after you have continued action for 6 mts or longer
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termination
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new behavior is ingrained
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behavior change in 4 steps
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1. learn basic wellness behaviors 2. prepare to change a behavior 3. acquire specific skills that support successful change 4. apply what you have learned to change behavior
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self-efficacy
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the degree to which you believe in your own ability to achieve something
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target behavior
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one well-defined habit chosen as your primary focus for change
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countering
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substituting an undesirable behavior for a desirable one
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SMART goals
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specific measurable action-oriented realistic time-oriented
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shaping
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a stepwise process of making a series of small changes
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MET
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-metabolic equivalent -how much energy is being expended during physical activity -1 MET=35mL/kg/min O2
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Recommended exercise for adults ages 18-65
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at least 30 min of moderate exercise 5 days/wk or at least 20 min of vigorous exercise 3 days/wk
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5 health related components of fitness
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cardiorespiratory endurance muscular strength muscular endurance flexibility body composition
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Lifestyle METS
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-less than 3 METS -light physical activity like stretching -can technically reduce risk of cardio disease
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Moderate METS
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-btw 3-6 METS -walking far, dancing -leads to decrease in body fat percentages
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Vigorous
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-6+ METS -any physical activity that requires hard physical labor
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6 Skill Related components of fitness
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agility balance coordination power speed reaction time
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1) Wellness is defined as
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C) the optimal soundness of body and mind.
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2) A physically fit person is best defined as someone who
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D) performs moderate to vigorous physical activity daily without undue fatigue.
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3) The ability to have satisfying interpersonal relationships is which of the following?
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D) social wellness
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4) Sue derives satisfaction and self-esteem from her job, so she is experiencing a high level of ________ wellness .
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intellectual
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5) Healthy life expectancy is calculated by
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A) subtracting years of disability or illness from overall life expectancy
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6) In the United States the average life expectancy for a female is
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D) 80.6.
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7) The average life expectancy at birth for males is which of the following?
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D) 75.6 years
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8) The number-one killer in the United States among adults of all ages is
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A) cardiovascular disease.
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9) Which of the following kills more Americans ages 15-24 than almost all other causes combined?
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C) accidents
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10) Hypokinetic diseases are defined as diseases caused by
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B) inactivity.
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11) Recent research has shown that most Americans are
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B) physically inactive.
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12) An organized, deliberate effort to alter or replace a habit or activity is known as
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B) behavior change.
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13) A person with an internal locus of control
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B) has a high level of self-efficacy.
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14) The "M" in the "SMART" system for setting goals stands for which of the following?
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B) measurable
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15) Going for a walk instead of eating dessert is an example of
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B) countering.
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16) The five health-related components of physical fitness are
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C) cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition.
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17) The ability of your muscles to contract repeatedly over time is known as
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B) muscular endurance.
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18) Muscular strength is defined as the ability of your muscles to
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A) exert force.
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19) Lean body tissue consists of
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D) muscle, bone, and fluids.
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20) The ability to perform work or contract muscles with high force quickly defines
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C) power.
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21) Being physically fit, getting regular medical exams, and having a healthy diet are all components of ________ wellness.
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B) physical
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22) Learning a second language is most likely to improve ________ wellness.
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B) intellectual
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23) Which of the following is a component of emotional wellness?
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B) good self-esteem
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24) ________ is a component of spiritual wellness.
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B) Altruism
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25) Recycling and using public transportation are examples of ________ wellness.
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A) environmental
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26) Diane recently quit smoking and started a support group for former smokers. As a result of these actions, she has improved which dimension of wellness?
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D) environmental, physical, social, spiritual, and financial
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27) Which of the following contributing factors to premature death is outside of a person's control?
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C) genetic disability
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28) The average healthy life expectancy for males is which of the following?
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A) 65 years
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29) Physical inactivity contributes to which of the following health conditions?
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A) heart disease
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30) ACSM recommends that adults perform at least ________ minutes of moderate physical activity per week.
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D) 150
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31) Which of the following is attributed to regular physical activity?
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A) reduced risk of weight gain
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32) Research has shown that ________ decreases a person's risk for chronic disease.
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D) physical activity
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33) Which of the following is a financial advantage of having a high level of wellness?
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A) lower health care costs
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34) Which of the following statements is true of the incidence of obesity in the United States?
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C) It is steadily increasing
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35) One of the key provisions of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
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B) allows parents to keep young adults on their policies through age 26.
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36) Which of the following is a goal of Healthy People 2020?
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promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages
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37) Which of the following statements is true regarding health care in the United States?
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D) Americans spent 2.7 trillion dollars on health care in 2011.
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38) The stage of the transtheoretical model in which a person does not acknowledge a need to change a behavior is
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B) precontemplation.
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39) People who have thought about what they might do to change a behavior and are within a month or so of taking action are in which stage of behavior change?
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D) preparation
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40) Your friend is morbidly obese. When you express your concern to him about his health, he denies that his obesity will have any effect on his health and cites the example of his father, who is also obese and apparently healthy. Which stage of behavior change is your friend in regarding his obesity?
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B) precontemplation
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41) Your Uncle Jim quit smoking 3 months ago, but today, in a moment of weakness, accepted and smoked a cigarette offered to him by a friend. Which stage of behavior change is he in?
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A) relapse
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42) Mentally picturing success in reaching a goal is known as which of the following?
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A) visualization
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43) Which of the following is an example of prevention?
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D) a vaccination
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44) Finding a healthy example to follow is known as which of the following?
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B) modeling
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45) A step-by-step process of making a series of small changes is known as which of the following?
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D) shaping
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46) Substituting a healthy behavior for an unhealthy behavior is known as what?
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C) countering
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47) Which of the following is most true of habits?
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D) Habits involve elements of deliberate choice but are influenced by demographics.
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48) A person believes that he may develop lung cancer if he continues to smoke. This is an example of perceived
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A) susceptibility.
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49) A conviction that one can control events and factors in one's life is known as
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C) locus of control.
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50) Which of the below is an action-oriented objective in a SMART goal setting system?
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B) Increase my distance by one-half mile every other week.
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51) Which of the following is the best specific, time-oriented goal for exercise?
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D) I'll run 3 miles in 30 minutes by mid-July.
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52) Which of the following is a specific, time-oriented goal for weight loss?
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A) I will lose 2 pounds in the next month.
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53) Attempting to double the amount of weight you can bench press in the space of a month is an example of which barrier to change?
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B) overambitious goals
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54) When a person pictures himself succeeding in achieving a goal, he is using
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C) visualization.
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55) Shaping is defined as
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B) making a series of small changes.
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56) John runs 3 miles, five days a week, because he enjoys the challenge and the way he feels afterward. John's reward for running is
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D) intrinsic.
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57) ________ is a beneficial tool for monitoring, recording, and measuring progress on a behavior change.
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B) Journaling
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58) The degree to which a person believes in his or her ability to achieve a goal is known as
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D) self-efficacy.
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59) An action plan, a list of support sources, and a public declaration of intent are all part of what strategy for change?
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B) behavior change contract
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1) TorF Physical fitness is defined as the ability to perform sports skills with proficiency.
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F 1
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2) TorF The dimensions of wellness are independent of one another and not interconnected.
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F 2
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3) TorF The leading causes of death for Americans overall are heart disease and cancer.
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T 3
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4) TorF The United States is one of the most overweight nations on earth.
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T 4
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5) TorF Healthy People 2020 establishes national public health priorities.
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T 5
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6) TorF Increasing physical activity is a major heath goal identified by the Surgeon General.
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T 6
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7) TorF The final stage in the transtheoretical model is maintenance of the new behavior.
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T 7
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8) TorF The transtheoretical model divides behavioral change into chronological stages.
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F 8
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9) TorF In the maintenance stage, people work to prevent relapse into old habits.
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T 9
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10) TorF Having an external locus of control means that a person believes that he has control over his behavioral choices.
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F 10
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11) TorF Winning the approval of someone else is a good reason to change a behavior.
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F 11
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12) TorF Time should not be specified in goals.
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F 12
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13) TorF The more strongly you state an intention to change a wellness habit, either verbally or on paper, the more likely it is you will succeed.
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T 13
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14) TorF A behavior change contract can serve as a collected set of sources of support.
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T 14
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15) TorF Lack of support and guidance can act as a barrier to behavior change.
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T 15
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16) TorF Going to a bar with a friend when you are trying to quit drinking is an example of effectively controlling your environment.
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F 16
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17) TorF Countering involves restructuring the environment to avoid temptations.
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F 17
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18) TorF Sixty-eight percent of Americans have a fat-to-lean ratio above recommended ranges.
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T 18
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19) TorF Having physical activity regulated by someone else is negatively associated with activity levels.
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T -19