Pathology is the study of disease in all its forms and manifestations. It is a branch of medical science that deals with the causes, processes, and effects of diseases in living organisms. Pathology studies the mechanisms of disease, how it develops and spreads, and how to diagnose and treat it. Pathologists also investigate the effects that treatments have on patients and their quality of life.Pathology is divided into two main categories: clinical pathology and anatomical pathology. Clinical pathology focuses on laboratory testing to diagnose diseases such as cancer, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, infectious diseases such as influenza or tuberculosis (TB), allergies or autoimmune disorders such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis. Anatomical pathology focuses on examining tissue samples from patients to identify specific diseases or conditions affecting organs such as the brain or lungs. Both types of pathologists work together to diagnose illness from a variety of sources including blood tests; urine tests; imaging techniques such as x-rays; biopsies; endoscopies; MRI scans; CT scans; PET scans; ultrasounds; genetic testing; and laboratory cultures for bacteria or viruses.Pathologists use a variety of methods for diagnosis including microscopic examination of tissue samples under a microscope (histopathology); examination with an electron microscope (electron microscopy); chemical analysis (biochemistry); genetic analysis (cytogenetics); immunologic techniques (immunophenotyping) and molecular biology techniques (molecular diagnostics). In addition to analyzing tissue samples in labs to detect abnormalities associated with certain conditions they are also responsible for interpreting laboratory results in order to provide an accurate diagnosis which can be used by clinicians when making treatment decisions. Patient care is essential part of pathology practice because pathologists must explain their findings accurately so that clinicians can make informed treatment decisions based on solid evidence provided by lab results. Additionally pathologists interpret patient data collected by other healthcare professionals which may help in determining proper course treatments for each patient’s unique condition(s). Pathologists play an important role in public health education by providing valuable information about the causes and spread of infectious diseases which can help protect individuals from becoming infected themselves or spreading infection to others. Thus Pathology has become an indispensable tool for diagnosing various ailments across many fields ranging from medicine to veterinary science making it one critical aspect within modern healthcare systems worldwide.
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