Exam #3 (Ch 6, 7, 8) Practice

10 September 2022
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question
Elaborate on the three different types of wireless network topologies.‚Äč
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frq
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Multipath signaling is a significant cause of fading.‚Äč
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True
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Which of the following are two different types of attacks against Bluetooth connections that can be used to send unsolicited data, or download data without permission?‚Äč
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‚Äčbluesnarfing,‚Äčbluejacking
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What two terms describe a wireless network topology in which access points work as peer devices on the same network?‚Äč
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‚Äčwireless mesh network (WMN),‚Äčmesh WLAN
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Which of the following is not a valid wireless network topology?
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‚Äčbus
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Select below the band that is not one of the four frequency bands used in the 5 GHz range for wireless LANs:‚Äč
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‚Äč5.9 GHz
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Which 802.11 technology is the first Wi-Fi standard to approach gigabit Ethernet capabilities, and operates on the 5 GHz band?‚Äč
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‚Äč802.11ac
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In an 802.11 data frame, what is the size of the frame check sequence field?‚Äč
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6 bytes
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After L2TP establishing a VPN tunnel, GRE is used to transmit L2TP data frames through the tunnel.‚Äč
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False
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The PPP headers and trailers used to create a PPP frame that encapsulates Network layer packets vary between 8 and 10 bytes in size due to what field?‚Äč
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‚ÄčFCS
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Describe the TLS/SSL handshake process as initiated by a web client accessing ‚Äča secure website.
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it allows the client and server to introduce themselves to each other and establishes terms for how they will securely exchange data.
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The original version of the Secure Hashing Algorithm (SHA) was developed by the NSA, and used a hash of what length?‚Äč
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‚Äč160 bit
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‚ÄčIn Kerberos, a temporary set of credentials that a client uses to prove that its identity has been validated is known as a _____________.
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Ticket
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A SecurID key chain fob from RSA security generates a password that changes how often?
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every 60 seconds
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When using a site-to-site VPN, what type of device sits at the edge of the LAN and establishes the connection between sites?‚Äč
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‚ÄčVPN gateway
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Digital certificates are issued by organizations known as what term?‚Äč
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‚Äčcertification authorities
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An attack in which hackers transmit bogus requests for connection to servers or applications in order to harvest useful information to guide their attack efforts is known as what option below?‚Äč
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‚Äčbanner-grabbing attack
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What characteristic of viruses make it possible for a virus to potentially change its characteristics (such as file size, and internal instructions) to avoid detection?
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‚Äčpolymorphism
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Botnets often make use of what chat protocol in order to receive commands?‚Äč
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‚ÄčIRC
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Which option below is a standard created by the NSA that defines protections against radio frequency emanations?
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‚ÄčTEMPEST
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A firewall typically involves a combination of hardware and software.‚Äč
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True
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A proxy that provides Internet clients access to services on its own network is known as what type of proxy?‚Äč
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‚Äčreverse proxy
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‚ÄčDescribe two different implementations of IDS that can be deployed on a network.
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A HIDS (host-based intrusion detection system) runs on a single computer to alert about attacks to thatone host. For example, a HIDS might detect an attempt to exploit an insecure application running on aserver or repeated attempts to log on to the server. A NIDS (network-based intrusion detection system) protects a network and is usually situated at theedge of the network or in a network' s protective perimeter, known as the DMZ, or demilitarized zone.Here, it can detect many types of suspicious traffic patterns, including those typical of denial-of-serviceor smurf attacks, for example.
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‚ÄčA type of intrusion detection that protects an entire network and is situated at the edge of the network or in a network's protective perimeter, known as the DMZ (demilitarized zone). Here, it can detect many types of suspicious traffic patterns.
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NIDS
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‚ÄčA program that runs independently and travels between computers and across networks. Although worms do not alter other programs as viruses do, they can carry viruses.
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worm
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‚ÄčA software security flaw that can allow unauthorized users to gain access to a system. Legacy systems are particularly notorious for leaving these kinds of gaps in a network's overall security net.
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backdoor
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‚ÄčA type of intrusion prevention that runs on a single computer, such as a client or server, to intercept and help prevent attacks against that one host.
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HIPS
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‚ÄčA portion of the security policy that explains to users what they can and cannot do, and penalties for violations. It might also describe how these measures protect the network's security.
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acceptable use policy (AUP)
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A type of intrusion detection that runs on a single computer, such as a client or server, to alert about attacks against that one host.
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HIDS
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‚ÄčA software application on a network host that acts as an intermediary between the external and internal networks, screening all incoming and outgoing traffic and providing one address to the outside world, instead of revealing the addresses of internal LAN devices.
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proxy service
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A program that replicates itself to infect more computers, either through network connections when it piggybacks on other files or through exchange of external storage devices, such as USB drives, passed among users.‚Äč
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virus
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‚ÄčA specification created by the NSA to define protection standards against RF emanation, which when implemented are called EmSec (emission security).
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TEMPEST
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‚ÄčA threat to networked hosts in which the host is flooded with broadcast ping messages.
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smurf attack
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In the context of wireless signal propagation, the phenomenon that occurs when an electromagnetic wave encounters an obstruction and splits into secondary waves. The secondary waves continue to propagate in the direction in which they were split.
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diffraction
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An 802.11 frame type that is responsible for carrying data between stations. Two other frame types include management frames, which are involved in association and reassociation, and control frames, which are related to medium access and data delivery.‚Äč
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data frame
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‚ÄčA method used by wireless stations to detect the presence of an access point. Using this method, the station issues a probe to each channel in its frequency range and waits for the access point to respond.
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active scanning
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The act of driving around an area while running a laptop configured to detect and capture wireless data transmissions.‚Äč
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war driving
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‚ÄčA security exploit in which a WPS PIN is discovered by means of a brute force attack, giving the attacker access to the network's WPA2 key. The PIN feature in WPS should be disabled if possible.
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WPS attack
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The throughput experienced at the application level, such as the quality of a video feed or the speed of a Web page loading in the browser.‚Äč
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goodput
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A type of antenna that issues wireless signals along a single direction, or path. Also called a directional antenna.‚Äč
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unidirectional antenna
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A type of antenna that issues and receives wireless signals with equal strength and clarity in all directions. This type of antenna is used when many different receivers must be able to pick up the signal, or when the receiver's location is highly mobile.‚Äč
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omnidirectional antenna
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The use of chalk to draw symbols on a sidewalk or wall within range of an access point. The symbols, patterned after marks that hobos devised to indicate hospitable places for food or rest, indicate the access point's SSID and whether it's secured.‚Äč
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war chalking
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An attack in which a Bluetooth connection is used to download data from a device without the owner's permission.‚Äč
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bluesnarfing
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How does the 802.11 data frame indicate how a large packet should be fragmented?‚Äč
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‚ÄčThe sequence control field indicates how packets will be subdivided
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What two frequencies are used for most wireless networks?‚Äč
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‚Äč5 GHz,2.4 GHz
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All 802.11 standards use ______________ signaling, meaning a wireless station can only transmit or receive, but cannot do both simultaneously.‚Äč
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half-duplex
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What signal propagation phenomena causes the diffusion, or the reflection in multiple different directions, of a signal?‚Äč
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scattering
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_________________ is an outdated wireless technology that has been mostly replaced by Bluetooth to connect personal devices.‚Äč
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Infrared (IR)
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Describe the 802.11a standard, and detail some of its history and advantages / disadvantages versus other 802.11 standards.‚Äč
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frq
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‚ÄčWhat signal propagation phenomena causes a wireless signal to split into secondary waves when it encounters an obstruction?
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‚Äčdiffraction
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A service model in which hardware services are provided virtually, including network infrastructure devices such as virtual servers.‚Äč
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IaaS(Infrastucture as a Service)
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A service model in which applications are provided through an online user interface and are compatible with a multitude of devices and operating systems.‚Äč
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SaaS(Softeware as a Service)
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‚ÄčIn the context of IPsec, a type of encryption that provides authentication of the IP packet's data payload through public key techniques. In addition, it also encrypts the entire IP packet for added security.
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ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload)
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One of two services in the key management phase of creating a secure IPsec connection. It negotiates the exchange of keys, including authentication of the keys. It uses UDP and usually runs on port 500.‚Äč
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IKE(Internet Key Exchange)
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An authentication protocol that operates over PPP and also encrypts usernames and passwords for transmission‚Äč
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CHAP(Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)
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An encryption key generation and management scheme used by 802.11i.‚Äč
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TKIP(Temporal Key Intergrity Protocol)
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A service model in which various platforms are provided virtually, enabling developers to build and test applications within virtual, online environments tailored to the specific needs of a project.‚Äč
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PaaS(Platform as a Service)
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In Kerberos terminology, the server that issues keys to clients during initial client authentication.‚Äč
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KDC(Key Distribution Center)
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A Layer 2 communications protocol that enables a workstation to connect to a server using a serial connection such as dial-up or DSL. It can support multiple Network layer protocols and can encrypt transmissions.‚Äč
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PPP (Point to Point Protocol)‚Äč
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In the context of IPsec, a type of encryption that provides authentication of the IP packet's data payload through public key techniques.‚Äč
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AH (Authentication Header)
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What two different types of encryption can be used by IPsec during data transfer?‚Äč
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Authentication Header (AH), ‚ÄčEncapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
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‚ÄčWindows, UNIX, Linux, and Mac OS clients are all capable of connecting to a VPN using PPTP.
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True
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An enterprise-wide VPN can include elements of both the client-to-site and site-to-site models.
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True
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How is GRE used by the PPP protocol?
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frq
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The _________________ cloud service model provides virtual environments online that can be tailored to the needs of developers.
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Platform as a Service (PaaS)
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What two types of agents are used to check compliance with network security policies?‚Äč
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dissolvable agent , persistent agent
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Which virus below combines polymorphism and stealth techniques to create a very destructive virus?
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Natas
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At what layer of the OSI model do firewalls operate?‚Äč
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Network
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Networks that use ________________, such as T-1 or DSL connections to the Internet, are vulnerable to eavesdropping at a building' s demarc (demarcation point), at a remote switching facility, or in a central office.
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leased public lines
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‚ÄčIn ACL statements, the any keyword is equivalent to using which wildcard mask?
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255.255.255.255
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The _____________ proxy server software is available for use on the UNIX / Linux platform.‚Äč
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SQUID
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A ______________ on a device attempts to alter management interfaces within the hardware to the point where the device is irreparable.
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physical attack
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Different types of organizations have similar levels of network security risks.
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False
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Describe the three way handshake process as used by CHAP.‚Äč
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frq
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In IEEE terminology, a group of stations that share an access point are said to be part of what option below?
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‚Äčbasic service set
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The wireless spectrum, as defined by the FCC, spans between which two frequencies?‚Äč
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300 GHz, 9 KHz
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Which 802.11 wireless innovation allows for the use of multiple antennas on an access point that can issue a signal to one or more receivers?‚Äč
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‚ÄčMIMO
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NFC tags are very expensive and cannot be purchased blank, requiring them to be pre-loaded.‚Äč
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False
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When PPP is used over an Ethernet network, it is known as ________________.‚Äč
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Point to Point over Ethernet PPPoE
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Amazon and Rackspace both utilize what virtualization software below to create their cloud environments?‚Äč
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Citrix Xen
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‚ÄčIf multiple honeypots are connected to form a larger network, what term is used to describe the network?
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‚Äčhoneynet
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Which two terms can be used to describe a decoy system that is purposely vulnerable for the sake of attracting attackers?‚Äč
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‚Äčhoneypot, ‚Äčlure
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What kind of attack involves a flood of broadcast ping messages, with the originating source address being spoofed to appear as a host on the network?‚Äč
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smurf attack‚Äč
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List and describe the four different locations in which anti-malware can be installed.
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frq
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All wireless signals are carried through the air by electromagnetic waves.
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True
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Unlike wired signals, wireless signals originate from electrical current traveling along a capacitor.‚Äč
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False
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Describe the hidden node problem, and explain how it can be mitigated.‚Äč
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frq
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The MD5 hashing algorithm is not susceptible to the possibility of hash collisions.‚Äč
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False
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Which type of cloud service model involves hardware services that are provided virtually, including network infrastructure devices such as virtual servers?‚Äč
answer
IaaS‚Äč
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What two protocols below are Data Link Layer protocols designed to connect WAN endpoints in a direct connection, such as when a client computer connects to a server at an ISP using a dial-up or DSL connection and modem?
answer
SLIP, PPP
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‚ÄčAn attack that involves a person redirecting or capturing secure transmissions as they occur is known as what type of attack?
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‚Äčman-in-the-middle attack
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A SOHO wireless router typically acts as a firewall and may include packet filtering options.‚Äč
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True
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What feature on some network switches can be used to detect faked arp messages?
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‚Äčdynamic ARP inspection
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The proportion of noise to the strength of a signal is called the _________________.‚Äč
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signal-to-noise ratio (SNR or S/N)
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What is the name for the special signal that contains information that a wireless node requires in order to associate itself with an access point?
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‚Äčbeacon frame
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__________________ is a form of radio communication that transfers data wirelessly over very short distances (usually 10 cm or less).‚Äč
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NFC (near field communication)
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At which two layers do wireless LANs operate?‚Äč
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Layer 1, 2
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Explain the difference between a unidirectional antenna and an omnidirectional antenna‚Äč.
answer
frq
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What authentication protocol sends authentication information in cleartext without encryption?‚Äč
answer
PAP
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At what layer of the OSI model does the IPsec encryption protocol operate?‚Äč
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Network layer
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What are the three tenets of the CIA triad, and how do they provide assurances that data will be protected?
answer
frq
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‚ÄčWhat protocol below only provides the framework for authenticating clients and servers, but relies on other encryption and authentication schemes to verify the credentials of clients or servers?
answer
EAP
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he combination of a public key and a private key are known by what term below?
answer
key pair
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‚ÄčWhat security encryption protocol requires regular re-establishment of a connection and can be used with any type of TCP/IP transmission?
answer
IPsec
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What two options below are IDS implementations used to provide additional security on a network?
answer
NIDS, HIDS
question
Programs that run independently and travel between computers and across networks, such as by e-mail attachment or virtually any kind of file transfer, are known as which option below?‚Äč
answer
worms
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Describe some of the characteristics of malware that make it difficult to detect.
answer
frq
question
What is the maximum theoretical throughput of 802.11n?‚Äč
answer
600 Mbps
question
‚ÄčAt what layer of the OSI model do the 802.11 standards vary?
answer
Physical layer
question
Which 802.11 standard was the first to utilize the 5 GHz band?‚Äč
answer
802.11a
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How many address fields exist in an 802.11 frame?‚Äč
answer
4
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The key management phase of IPSec is reliant on which two services below?
answer
‚ÄčInternet Key Exchange (IKE), ‚ÄčInternet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP)
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‚ÄčThe SSH service listens on what TCP port?
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22
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A _________________ is a service that is shared between multiple organizations, but not available publicly.‚Äč
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community cloud
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Describe how public key encryption works.‚Äč
answer
frq
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What type of virus are dormant until a specific condition is met, such as the changing of a file or a match of the current date?‚Äč
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logic bomb‚Äč
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‚ÄčWhat characteristic of viruses make it possible for a virus to potentially change its characteristics (such as file size, and internal instructions) to avoid detection?
answer
polymorphism
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The ________________ utility is a Windows console that is used to control what users do and how the system can be used.‚Äč
answer
gpedit.msc
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Ideally, stations must remain within what range of an access point in order to maintain optimal transmission speeds?‚Äč
answer
300 feet