Ethics Chapter 3

28 August 2022
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question
70. The volume of spam is increasing because a) companies have found it to be effective. b) it is 100 times less expensive than a traditional flyer sent via the U.S. mail. c) some people respond to spam advertisements. d) All of the above e) None of the above
answer
d) All of the above
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71. A Korean cybercafΓ© where people play on-line, persistent games is called a a) coffee clubhouse. b) computer commons. c) PC bang. d) Tenretni (Internet spelled backwards). e) virtual reality theater.
answer
c) PC bang.
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72. A wiki is a) An online encyclopedia. b) A personal journal kept on the Web. c) An electronic profile constructed automatically by a Web browser. d) A piece of software that allows ISPs to monitor who visits which Web sites. e) A Web site that allows multiple people to contribute and edit its content.
answer
e) A Web site that allows multiple people to contribute and edit its content.
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73. A blog is a) a character in Lineage, a popular on-line game. b) a personal journal kept on the Web. c) a person who assumes a false identity in a chat room. d) a special symbol visible on displays that show Unicode characters. e) the Web version of a "couch potato."
answer
b) a personal journal kept on the Web.
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74. Many people are now using the Web not simply to download content, but to build communities and upload and share content they have created. This trend has been given the name a) Persistent online reality b) Online networking c) Web 2.0 d) Interactive hypermedia e) Virtual reality
answer
c) Web 2.0
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75. Which of these is not an example of direct censorship? a) government monopolization b) self-censorship c) pre-publication review d) licensing and registration e) All of the above are examples of direct censorship.
answer
b) self-censorship
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76. According to John Stuart Mill's Principle of Harm, the only ground on which the government should intervene in the conduct of an individual is when a) the individual is breaking the law. b) it would clearly be to the benefit of the individual. c) the individual is under 18 or over 65. d) it would prevent harm to others. e) According to Mill, the government should intervene if any of the above conditions are true.
answer
d) it would prevent harm to others.
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77. In the United States, freedom of expression a) is a positive right. b) is not an absolute right. c) is limited to political speech. d) has been abolished by decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court. e) is guaranteed by the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
answer
b) is not an absolute right.
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78. A Web filter is a piece of software that a) keeps track of the pages your Web browser displays. b) sends Google information about your Web surfing habits. c) prevents certain Web pages from being displayed by your browser. d) prevents unauthorized people from using your computer to surf the Web. e) A and B
answer
c) prevents certain Web pages from being displayed by your browser.
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79. Which of the following laws was upheld as constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court? a) Communications Decency Act b) Child Online Protection Act c) Child Internet Protection Act d) All of these laws were upheld as constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court. e) None of these laws were upheld as constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court
answer
c) Child Internet Protection Act
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80. Sexting refers to a) sending text messages with nude or nearly nude photographs. b) sending emails with nude or nearly nude photographs. c) posting nude or nearly nude photographs to a Web site. d) A and B. e) A, B, and C.
answer
d) A and B.
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81. Sexting is causing a legal crisis because a) police and prosecutors refuse to get involved in sexting cases. b) police and prosecutors are treating sexting as a felony offense. c) prisons are starting to fill up with people convicted of sexting. d) police have been charged with possession of child pornography. e) B and C.
answer
b) police and prosecutors are treating sexting as a felony offense.
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82. How many Americans are victims of identity theft each year? a) About 10,000. b) About 100,000. c) About 1 million. d) About 10 million. e) About 100 million.
answer
d) About 10 million.
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83. Cyberbullying is defined as inflicting psychological harm on another person using a) the phone system. b) the Internet. c) broadcast media such as radio or television. d) A and B. e) A, B, and C.
answer
d) A and B.
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84. Kimberly Young's test for Internet addiction is based on the diagnosis of a) pathological gambling. b) obsessive/compulsive behavior. c) chronic sleeplessness. d) anxiety disorders. e) schizophrenia.
answer
a) pathological gambling.
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85. The Enlightenment view of addiction is that a) there is nothing wrong with addiction. b) addiction is not real. c) addiction can never be overcome by will-power alone. d) society is responsible for the bad choices people make. e) people are responsible for the choices they make.
answer
e) people are responsible for the choices they make.
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48. Unsolicited, bulk, commercial email is commonly called ____________.
answer
spam
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49. Trying to create a list of valid email addresses by sending email to randomly generated addresses and seeing which ones are delivered is called a _______________.
answer
dictionary attack
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50. Every object on the World Wide Web has a unique address called the _________________.
answer
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
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51. A personal journal or diary kept on the Web is called a _________.
answer
blog
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52. Mobile apps allow users of devices such as ________________ to access the Internet and download and upload data.
answer
smartphones and tablets
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53. Web users have the ability to contribute content to the Web. This way of using the Web has been given the name __________.
answer
Web 2.0
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54. An online method to get information or ideas from a large group of people is commonly known as ___________________.
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crowdsourcing
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55. The Internet of Things refers to __________________________
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Internet-connected devices that can be controlled remotely
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56. Chinese "gold farmers" make a living by playing persistent online games and selling _________________________
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virtual objects such as gold and artifacts over the Internet.
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57. Saudi Arabians have access to the Internet through a control center outside Riyadh which ____________ pornography sites, gambling sites, and sites offensive to Islam.
answer
blocks (filters out)
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58. In 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Child Internet Protection Act was _______________.
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constitutional
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59. The attempt to suppress or regulate public access to material considered offensive or harmful is called ___________.
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censorship
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60. The three forms of direct censorship are:
answer
government monopoly, pre-publication review, and licensing and registration.
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61. John Stuart Mill held that an institution to intervene in the conduct of an individual only when the intervention is needed to prevent harm to others. This is called the ___________.
answer
Principle of Harm
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62. In 18th century America, there were no prior restraints on publication. This meant that colonists had the freedom to ________________.
answer
publish without a license
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63. The _______ Amendment to the Constitution guarantees freedom of speech and freedom of the press.
answer
First
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64. The act of assuming someone else's electronic identity is called ________.
answer
identity theft
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65. From the point of view of Kant or Mill, the responsibility for excessive Internet use lies with _____________.
answer
the individual user
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22. Why is freedom of expression not an absolute right? Give practical examples to illustrate your argument
answer
BS
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23. According to the U.S. Supreme Court, why do radio and television broadcasters have the most limited First Amendment rights?
answer
1. Broadcast media have a uniquely pervasive presence in the lives of all americans 2. Broadcasting is uniquely accessible even those two young to read.
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27. Some believe that Internet addiction is real, but others disagree. Summarize the arguments on both sides of this question. Which side has the stronger argument? Why?
answer
BS
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24. What characteristics of the Internet make censorship of the Internet particularly difficult?
answer
Sheer volume, globalization, difficulty to distinguish between adults and chuldren, unlike traditional one-to-many media the internet support many-to-many communications
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26. Explain how Mill's Principle of Harm relates to the moral issue of pornography on the Web.
answer
Mill's principle of harm applies to intervention if harm will be against individuals other than oneself. Porn if disgusting, but it is not harming others physically in itself.
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25. Describe how the governments of Saudi Arabia, the People's Republic of China, and the United States regulate the Web.
answer
Saudi Arabia: Centralized control center outside of Ridyah to filter blocked web pages. China: manual identification of sites that should be blacklisted and the blockage of access to the internet during times of social upheaval. US: has some filtering to protect children from pornographic sites.