Ethical Decision Making (Quiz 5)

31 August 2022
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question
According to the ethical decision-making framework, the absence of punishment provides aNo _____ for unethical behavior. Select one: a. reason b. significant other c. individual factor d. opportunity e. ethical issue intensity
answer
d. opportunity
Explanation: d. opportunity
question
All of the following are true regarding institutions except Select one: a. Stakeholders closely align with institutions. b. The regulatory system aligns with political institutions. c. There is no clear link between institutional theory and the stakeholder orientation of management. d. Competition relates to economic institutions. e. Personal values and norms derive from social institutions.
answer
c. There is no clear link between institutional theory and the stakeholder orientation of management.
Explanation: The answer is c. There is no clear link between institutional theory and the stakeholder orientation of management.Institutional theory is concerned with the ways in which institutions shape and constrain the behavior of individuals and organizations. Stakeholder orientation, on the other hand, is a managerial approach that emphasizes the need to take into account the interests of all stakeholders in decision-making. While there is some overlap between these two concepts, there is no clear link between them.
question
All of the following are true with regards to organizational factors except Select one: a. Employees approach ethical issues on the basis of what they learned from others in the organization. b. An alignment between a person's own values and the values of the organization help create positive organizational outcomes. c. Congruence in personal and organizational values is related to commitment, satisfaction, motivation, ethics, work stress, and anxiety. d. Ethical choices in organizations are most often made individually. e. Just as a family guides an individual, specific industries give behavioral cues to firms.
answer
Not A
Explanation: d. Ethical choices in organizations are most often made individually.The other choices all suggest that ethical choices in organizations are made on the basis of factors such as an alignment of values between the individual and the organization, or the influence of others in the organization. d. Ethical choices in organizations are most often made individually suggests that ethical choices are made primarily by individuals, without considering organizational factors.
question
An ethical corporate culture needs _____ along with _____ to establish an ethics program and monitor the complex ethical decisions being made by employees . Select one: a. individual ethics; ethical issue intensity b. ethical issue intensity; ethics training c. organizational factors; individual factors d. employee evaluations; good intentions e. shared values; proper oversight
answer
e. shared values; proper oversight
Explanation: A corporate culture that is ethical needs both shared values and proper oversight in order to establish an ethics program and monitor the ethical decisions being made by employees. Individual ethics and ethical issue intensity are important, but without shared values and proper oversight, an organization will not be able to effectively establish and monitor an ethical corporate culture.
question
Codes, rules, and compliance are essential in organizations. However, an organization built on _____ is more likely to develop a high integrity corporate culture. Select one: a. a charismatic leader b. the preferences of the CEO c. the grapevine d. formal relationships e. informal relationships
answer
e. informal relationships
Explanation: Organizations built on informal relationships are more likely to develop a high integrity corporate culture. This is because informal relationships are based on trust and mutual respect, and people in these types of relationships are more likely to be honest and open with each other. Formal relationships, on the other hand, are often based on power and authority, and people in these types of relationships are often more likely to be afraid of speaking up or being honest about their feelings and thoughts.
question
Employees who believe they control the events in their lives by their own effort and skill have aNo Select one: a. external locus of control. b. moral intensity c. obedience to authority d. opportunity e. internal locus of control.
answer
e. internal locus of control.
Explanation: Employees who believe they control the events in their lives by their own effort and skill have an internal locus of control.
question
External and internal rewards relate to which part of the ethical decision-making framework? Select one: a. Individual factors b. Significant others c. Cognitive moral development d. Obedience to authority e. Opportunity
answer
e. Opportunity
Explanation: External rewards relate to the individual factors" part of the ethical decision-making framework, while internal rewards relate to the "significant others" part of the framework."
question
Following the ethical directives of a superior relates to Select one: a. an internal locus of control. b. obedience to authority. c. moral intensity. d. gender. e. ethical issue intensity.
answer
b. obedience to authority.
Explanation: When we follow the ethical directives of a superior, we are essentially placing our trust in that person's judgement. We are saying that we believe they have our best interests at heart, and that we are willing to follow their guidance. This can relate to an internal locus of control in that we are trusting our own judgement in following the directive, rather than blindly obeying an authority figure. It can also relate to moral intensity in that we may be more likely to follow a directive if we believe it is morally correct, rather than simply following orders. Gender may also play a role, as we may be more likely to follow the directives of a superior who shares our gender identity.
question
Studies have found that more than a third of the unethical situations that lower and middle-level managers face come from _____. Select one: a. stakeholder expectations and pressures. b. pressures to satisfy customers. c. pressures from the government to perform at a high level. d. internal pressures and ambiguity surrounding internal organizational rules. e. struggles to obey relevant laws.
answer
d. internal pressures and ambiguity surrounding internal organizational rules.
Explanation: Studies have found that more than a third of the unethical situations that lower and middle-level managers face come from internal pressures and ambiguity surrounding internal organizational rules. This can be due to a variety of factors, such as unclear expectations from superiors, a lack of clarity about what is considered ethical behavior within the organization, or pressure to meet quotas or deadlines. This can create an environment in which managers feel they have to cut corners or take shortcuts in order to succeed, which can lead to unethical behavior.
question
Studies have shown that _____ within the organization have more impact on a worker's decisions on a daily basis than any other factor. Select one: a. significant others b. religion c. education d. chief executive officers e. ethical issues
answer
a. significant others
Explanation: There are many factors that can influence a worker's decisions on a daily basis, but studies have shown that the most important factor is the opinion of significant others within the organization. This could include a worker's supervisor, co-workers, or even friends and family members. These people can provide guidance and support that can help a worker make the best decisions for their career.
question
The ethical decision making process in business includes all of the following except Select one: a. Individual factors b. Opportunity c. Ethical issue intensity d. Society's view of the decision e. Organizational factors
answer
d. Society's view of the decision
Explanation:There are many factors that can influence a worker's decisions on a daily basis, but studies have shown that the most important factor is the opinion of significant others within the organization. This could include a worker's supervisor, co-workers, or even friends and family members. These people can provide guidance and support that can help a worker make the best decisions for their career.
question
The relationship between business ethics and age Select one: a. shows a negative correlation. b. is simple, and greater experience leads to better ethical decision making. c. is complex, although experience helps older employees make ethical decisions. d. suggests that employees with less experience have a greater ability to deal with complex industry-specific ethical issues. e. does not demonstrate a statistically significant correlation.
answer
c. is complex, although experience helps older employees make ethical decisions.
Explanation: The relationship between business ethics and age is complex, although experience helps older employees make ethical decisions. Employees with less experience may have a greater ability to deal with complex industry-specific ethical issues, but older employees generally have more experience and may be better able to make ethical decisions.
question
_____ institutions include religion, education, and individuals such as the family unit. Select one: a. Social b. Conservative c. Economic d. Liberal e. Political
answer
a. Social
Explanation: Social institutions are those that are necessary for the functioning of society. They include religion, education, and the family unit.
question
_____ is an organizational factor that gives a company specific characteristics. Over time, stakeholders begin to see the company as like a living organism with a mind and will of its own. Select one: a. Oversight b. Significant others c. Corporate culture d. The ethical climate e. The legal climate
answer
c. Corporate culture
Explanation: Corporate culture is an organizational factor that gives a company specific characteristics. Over time, stakeholders begin to see the company as like a living organism with a mind and will of its own.
question
___________ reflects the integrity of decisions made and is a function of many factors.‚Äč Select one: a. ‚ÄčEthical awareness b. ‚ÄčEthical culture c. ‚ÄčOrganizational environment d. ‚ÄčMoral intensity e. ‚ÄčCorporate culture
answer
b. ‚ÄčEthical culture
Explanation: The ethicality of a decision is determined by many factors, including the values and beliefs of the decision-maker, the consequences of the decision, and the context in which the decision is made. Factors that contribute to the ethicality of a decision include the moral intensity of the situation, the ethical awareness of the decision-maker, and the ethical culture of the organization.
question
A firm's core values ‚Äčprovide a blueprint into the firm's purpose as well as how it views ethical decision making and prioritizes stakeholders. Select one: True False
answer
TRUE
Explanation: A firm's core values provide a blueprint into the firm's purpose as well as how it views ethical decision making and prioritizes stakeholders. This helps to ensure that the firm is making decisions that are in line with its values and that it is taking into consideration the impact of its decisions on all of its stakeholders.
question
A study has found that those with an external locus of control ‚Äčwere positively correlated with ethical decision making, whereas those with an internal locus of control were negatively correlated. Select one: True False
answer
FALSE
Explanation: A study has found that those with an external locus of control were positively correlated with ethical decision making, whereas those with an internal locus of control were negatively correlated. This means that those who feel that they are in control of their own lives and destiny are more likely to make ethical decisions than those who feel that their lives are controlled by outside forces.
question
In the workplace, the organization's values often have a greater influence on a decision than the person's own values. ‚Äč Select one: True False
answer
TRUE
Explanation: The organization's values often have a greater influence on a decision than the person's own values because the organization's values are what guide the company's actions. The person's own values may be different, but they will likely be influenced by the organization's values.
question
The ethical decision-making model will be able to tell you whether a decision is ethical or unethical. ‚Äč Select one: True False
answer
FALSE
Explanation: The ethical decision-making model can help you determine whether a decision is ethical or unethical. However, it is not always possible to tell whether a decision is ethical or unethical. Sometimes, there may be more than one correct answer, or the answer may depend on the individual's values and beliefs.
question
The terms moral intensity and ethical issue intensity can be used interchangeably. ‚Äč Select one: True False
answer
FALSE
Explanation: False. The terms moral intensity and ethical issue intensity are not interchangeable. Moral intensity refers to the level of morality involved in a given situation, while ethical issue intensity refers to the level of ethical issues involved in a given situation.