Chapter 9-language

10 July 2024
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Which term refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating?
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cognition
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An algorithm is a
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methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems.
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Simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgments efficiently are called
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heuristics
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The confirmation bias refers to the tendency to
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search for information that supports our preconceptions.
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The inability to see a problem from a new perspective is called
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a fixation.
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The overconfidence phenomenon refers to the tendency to
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underestimate the extent to which our beliefs and judgments are inaccurate.
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Wording a question or presenting an issue in such a way that it evokes a desired judgment is called
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framing
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Language refers to the
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spoken, written, or signed words and the ways they are combined to communicate meaning.
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The smallest distinctive sound unit of language is a
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phoneme
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English words are constructed from about ________ different phonemes
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40
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The system of rules in a language that enables us to understand and communicate with others is called
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grammar
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Semantics refers to the
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rules by which we derive meaning from sounds
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To combine words into grammatically sensible sentences, we need to apply proper rules of
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syntax
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The earliest stage of speech development is called the ________ stage
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babbling
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At the age of 15 months, Anita repeatedly cries "hoy" when she wants her mother to hold her. Anita is most likely in the ________ stage of language development.
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one-word
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No matter what language we first use, our first words are mostly
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nouns
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Noam Chomsky suggested that all human languages share a(n)
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universal grammar.
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Noam Chomsky attributed children's ability to pick up language so readily to
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a built-in readiness to learn grammar rules
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By about age 7, those who have not been exposed to either a spoken or a signed language gradually lose their ability to master any language. This illustrates the importance of ________ for language acquisition.
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a critical period
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The best evidence that there is a critical period for language acquisition is the fact that
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people most easily master the grammar of a second language during childhood.
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An impairment of language is known as
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aphasia.
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After Miguel's recent automobile accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebral cortex in Broca's area. It is likely that Miguel will have difficulty
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speaking fluently.
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Psychologists are most likely to doubt that chimpanzees have the capacity to
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use complex grammar.
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Many people who are bilingual experience a different sense of self, depending on which language they are using. This most clearly illustrates the implications of
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Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis.
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Introductory psychology students performed best on a midterm psychology test if they had previously spent five minutes a day visualizing themselves
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studying effectively.