Chapter 8 AP Bio

24 July 2022
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question
1) In autotrophic bacteria, where are chlorophyll-like pigments located? A) in the chloroplast membranes B) in the chloroplast stroma C) in infolded regions of the plasma membrane D) in infolded regions of the cell wall E) in the central vacuole membrane
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C) in infolded regions of the plasma membrane
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2) If photosynthesizing green algae are provided with CO2 containing heavy oxygen (18O), subsequent analysis will show that 18O is absent from which of the following molecules produced by the algae? A) O2 B) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) C) glucose D) ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP)
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A) O2
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3) If photosynthesizing green algae are provided with CO2 containing heavy oxygen (18O), subsequent analysis will show that 18O first appears in which of the following molecules produced by the algae? A) O2 B) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) C) glucose D) ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) E) 3-phosphoglycerate
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E) 3-phosphoglycerate
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4) If plants are grown with H2O containing heavy oxygen (18O), subsequent analysis will show that 18O first appears in which of the following molecules produced by the algae? A) O2 B) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) C) glucose D) ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) E) CO2
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A) O2
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5) Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle? A) CO2 and glucose B) H2O and O2 C) ADP, ℗i, and NADP+ D) electrons and H+ E) ATP and NADPH
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E) ATP and NADPH
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6) Where does the Calvin cycle take place? A) stroma of the chloroplast B) thylakoid membrane C) outer membrane of the chloroplast D) interior of the thylakoid (thylakoid space)
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A) stroma of the chloroplast
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7) When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a direct by-product of A) reducing NADP+. B) splitting water molecules. C) chemiosmosis. D) electron transfer in photosystem I. E) electron transfer in photosystem II.
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B) splitting water molecules.
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8) A plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are being absorbed by this pigment? A) red and yellow B) blue and violet C) green and yellow D) blue, green, and red E) green, blue, and yellow
answer
B) blue and violet
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9) In the thylakoid membranes, what is the main role of the pigment molecules in a light-harvesting complex? A) split water and release oxygen to the reaction-center chlorophyll B) transfer light energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll C) synthesize ATP from ADP and ℗i D) transfer electrons to NADPH
answer
B) transfer light energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll
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10) Which of the following events occurs in the light reactions of photosynthesis? A) NADP+ is produced. B) ATP is consumed to yield ADP. C) Carbon dioxide is fixed in organic molecules. D) Light is absorbed and funneled to reaction-center chlorophyll a.
answer
D) Light is absorbed and funneled to reaction-center chlorophyll a.
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11) If plants are grown in the light with CO2 containing heavy oxygen (18O), subsequent analysis will show that 18O incorporated in organic molecules first appears in A) the thylakoid space. B) the thylakoid membranes. C) the stroma. D) photosystem II E) the chloroplast intermembrane space.
answer
D) photosystem II
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12) Which of the following activities is associated with photosystem II? A) Light energy excites electrons in the thylakoid membrane electron transport chain. B) Electrons released from the P680 chlorophyll are replaced by electrons derived from water. C) The P680 chlorophyll donates a pair of electrons directly to NADP+, producing NADPH. D) Electrons are passed from the P680 chlorophyll to molecular oxygen (O2).
answer
D) Electrons are passed from the P680 chlorophyll to molecular oxygen (O2).
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13) Which of the following is directly associated with photosystem I? A) harvesting of light energy by ATP B) receiving electrons from the thylakoid membrane electron transport chain C) generation of molecular oxygen D) extraction of hydrogen electrons from the splitting of water
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B) receiving electrons from the thylakoid membrane electron transport chain
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14) In chemiosmosis in mitochondria, protons flow from the intermembrane space into the matrix, whereas in chemiosmosis in chloroplasts, protons flow from A) the stroma into the cytosol. B) the matrix into the stroma. C) the stroma into the thylakoid space. D) the intermembrane space into the stroma. E) the thylakoid space to into the stroma.
answer
E) the thylakoid space to into the stroma.
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15) Some photosynthetic organisms contain chloroplasts that lack photosystem II, yet are able to survive. The best way to detect the lack of photosystem II in these organisms would be A) to determine if they have thylakoids in the chloroplasts. B) to test for liberation of O2 in the light. C) to test for CO2 fixation in the dark. D) to the action spectrum for photosynthesis.
answer
B) to test for liberation of O2 in the light.
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16) What are the products of linear electron flow? A) heat and fluorescence B) ATP and water C) ATP and NADPH D) ADP and NADP+
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C) ATP and NADPH
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17) What is the primary function of cyclic electron flow? A) to produce additional NADPH B) to produce additional ATP C) to produce additional oxygen D) to produce additional carbon dioxide
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B) to produce additional ATP
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18) As a research scientist, you measure the amount of ATP and NADPH consumed by the Calvin cycle in 1 hour. You find 30,000 molecules of ATP consumed, but only 20,000 molecules of NADPH. What is the source of the extra ATP? A) photosystem II B) photosystem I C) cyclic electron flow D) linear electron flow
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C) cyclic electron flow
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19) What does the chemiosmosis process in chloroplasts involve? A) establishment of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane B) diffusion of electrons through the thylakoid membrane C) reduction of water to produce oxygen D) formation of glucose, using carbon dioxide, NADPH, and ATP
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A) establishment of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane
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20) Suppose the interior of the thylakoids of isolated chloroplasts were made acidic and then transferred in the dark to a pH 8 solution. What would be likely to happen? A) The isolated chloroplasts will produce ATP. B) The isolated chloroplasts will make glucose. C) Cyclic photophosphorylation will occur. D) The isolated chloroplasts will generate oxygen gas. E) The isolated chloroplasts will reduce NADP+ to NADPH.
answer
A) The isolated chloroplasts will produce ATP.
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21) In a plant cell, where are ATP synthase complexes located? A) thylakoid membranes only B) plasma membrane only C) inner mitochondrial membranes only D) thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membranes E) thylakoid membrane and plasma membranes
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D) thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membranes
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22) In mitochondria, the electron transport chain pumps protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, the electron transport chain pumps protons from A) the stroma to the cytosol. B) the matrix to the stroma. C) the stroma to the thylakoid space. D) the intermembrane space to the stroma. E) the thylakoid space to the stroma.
answer
C) the stroma to the thylakoid space
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23) Which of the following statements about the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true? A) In cellular respiration the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis run in reverse. B) In photosynthesis the biochemical pathways of cellular respiration run in reverse. C) Cellular respiration occurs only in animals and photosynthesis occurs only in plants. D) There is a net consumption of ATP in cellular respiration and a net production of ATP in photosynthesis. E) Cellular respiration is catabolic and photosynthesis is anabolic.
answer
E) Cellular respiration is catabolic and photosynthesis is anabolic.
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24) Where are the molecules of the electron transport chain associated with photophosphorylation located in plant cells? A) thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts B) stroma of chloroplasts C) outer membrane of chloroplasts D) matrix of mitochondria E) inner membrane of mitochondria
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A) thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts
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25) Electron transport chains associated with ATP production in plant cells are located in A) the outer chloroplast membranes only. B) the thylakoid membranes only. C) the mitochondrial inner membranes only. D) the thylakoid and outer chloroplast membranes. E) the thylakoid and mitochondrial inner membranes.
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E) the thylakoid and mitochondrial inner membranes.
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26) In photosynthetic cells, synthesis of ATP by chemiosmosis occurs during A) photosynthesis only. B) cellular respiration only. C) both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. D) photophosphorylation only.
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C) both photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
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27) Reduction of oxygen to form water occurs during A) the light reactions of photosynthesis only. B) the Calvin cycle only. C) cellular respiration only. D) both the light reactions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. E) both the light reactions of photosynthesis and the Calvin cycle.
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C) cellular respiration only.
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28) The splitting of carbon dioxide to form oxygen gas and carbon compounds occurs during A) photosynthesis. B) respiration. C) both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. D) neither photosynthesis nor respiration. E) photorespiration
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D) neither photosynthesis nor respiration.
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29) Carotenoids are often found in foods that are considered to have antioxidant properties in human nutrition. What related function do they have in plants? A) They are accessory pigments that narrow the spectrum of light wavelengths used to drive photosynthesis. B) They absorb harmful ultraviolet radiation to protect plant chromosomes from damage. C) They protect against oxidative damage from excessive light energy. D) They absorb orange light, enhancing the efficiency of photosynthesis.
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C) They protect against oxidative damage from excessive light energy.
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30) Generation of proton gradients across membranes occurs during A) photosynthesis only. B) cellular respiration only. C) both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. D) neither photosynthesis nor cellular respiration.
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C) both photosynthesis and cellular respiration
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31) What is the relationship between wavelength of light and the quantity of energy per photon? A) They have a direct, linear relationship. B) They are inversely related. C) They are logarithmically related. D) They are only related in certain parts of the spectrum.
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B) They are inversely related.
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32) P680+ is said to be the strongest biological oxidizing agent. Given its function, why is this necessary? A) It is the receptor for the most excited electrons in either photosystem. B) It is the molecule that transfers electrons to the photosynthetic electron transport chain. C) It transfers its electrons directly to NADP+ to produce NADPH. D) It obtains electrons from the oxygen atom in a water molecule, so it must have a stronger affinity for electrons than oxygen has. E) It has a positive charge.
answer
D) It obtains electrons from the oxygen atom in a water molecule, so it must have a stronger affinity for electrons than oxygen has.
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33) Some photosynthetic bacteria (e.g., purple sulfur bacteria) have only photosystem I, whereas others (e.g., cyanobacteria) have both photosystem I and photosystem II. Which of the following might this observation imply? A) Photosystem II was selected against in some species. B) Photosynthesis with only photosystem I is more ancestral. C) Photosystem II may have evolved to be more photoprotective. D) Linear electron flow is more primitive than cyclic flow of electrons. E) Cyclic electron flow is essential to photosynthesis.
answer
B) Photosynthesis with only photosystem I is more ancestral.
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34) In which types of plants is the enzyme rubisco found? A) C3 plants only B) C4 plants only C) C3 and C4 plants only D) C4 and CAM plants only E) C3, C4, and CAM plants
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A) C3 plants only
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35) A flask containing photosynthetic green algae and a control flask containing water with no algae are both placed under a bank of lights, which are set to cycle between 12 hours of light and 12 hours of dark. The dissolved oxygen concentrations in both flasks are monitored. Predict what the relative dissolved oxygen concentrations will be in the flask with algae compared to the control flask. A) The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the flask with algae will always be higher. B) The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the flask with algae will always be lower. C) The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the flask with algae will be higher in the light, but the same in the dark. D) The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the flask with algae will be higher in the light, but lower in the dark. E) The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the flask with algae will be lower in the light, but higher in the dark.
answer
D) The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the flask with algae will be higher in the light, but lower in the dark.
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36) What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle? A) regenerate ATP for use in the light reactions of photosynthesis B) produce carbon dioxide for use in the light reactions of photosynthesis C) produce oxygen by oxidizing water 36) What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle? A) regenerate ATP for use in the light reactions of photosynthesis B) produce carbon dioxide for use in the light reactions of photosynthesis C) produce oxygen by oxidizing water D) produce simple sugars from carbon dioxide
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D) produce simple sugars from carbon dioxide
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37) Reduced soluble electron carriers are produced in A) the light reactions of photosynthesis. B) the Calvin cycle. C) the citric acid cycle. D) both the Calvin cycle and the citric acid cycle. E) both the light reactions of photosynthesis and the citric acid cycle.
answer
B) the Calvin cycle.
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38) In the process of carbon fixation, three molecules of RuBP combine with three molecules of CO2 to produce three six-carbon molecules, which are then split to produce 12 molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. After phosphorylation and reduction produce 12 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), what more needs to happen to complete the Calvin cycle? A) release of two G3P to make sugars and regeneration of ATP from ADP B) release of two G3P to make sugars and regeneration of RuBP C) release of one G3P to make sugars and regeneration of NADPH D) release of one G3P to make sugars and regeneration of citrate E) release of one G3P to make sugars and regeneration of RuBP
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E) release of one G3P to make sugars and regeneration of RuBP
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39) The pH of the inner thylakoid space has been measured, as have the pH of the stroma and of the cytosol of a particular plant cell. Which, if any, relationship would you expect to find? A) The pH within the thylakoid is lower than that of the stroma. B) The pH of the stroma is lower than that of either the thylakoid space or cytosol. C) The pH of the thylakoid space is higher than that of either the stroma or cytosol. D) The pH of the stroma is higher than that of either the thylakoid space or cytosol.
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A) The pH within the thylakoid is lower than that of the stroma.
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40) A reduction in the amount of NADP+ available in plant cells in the light will ultimately result in A) an increase in the rate of the Calvin cycle. B) a decrease in the rate of linear electron flow. C) a decrease in the rate of cyclic electron flow. D) an increase in the rate of oxygen production.
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B) a decrease in the rate of linear electron flow.
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41) What compound provides the reducing power for the Calvin cycle reactions? A) ATP B) FAD C) FADH2 D) NADPH E) CO2
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D) NADPH
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42) What would be the expected effect on plants if the atmospheric CO2 concentration was doubled? A) All plants will experience increased rates of photosynthesis. B) C3 plants will have faster growth; C4 plants will be minimally affected. C) C4 plants will have faster growth; C3 plants will be minimally affected. D) C3 plants will have faster growth; C4 plants will have slower growth.
answer
B) C3 plants will have faster growth; C4 plants will be minimally affected.
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43) Where do the enzymatic reactions of the Calvin cycle take place? A) stroma of the chloroplast B) thylakoid membranes C) matrix of the mitochondria D) thylakoid space
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A) stroma of the chloroplast
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44) In C3 photosynthesis, the reactions that require ATP take place in A) the light reactions alone. B) the Calvin cycle alone. C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle. D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle.
answer
B) the Calvin cycle alone.
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45) The NADPH required for the Calvin cycle comes from A) reactions initiated in photosystem I. B) reactions initiated in photosystem II. C) the citric acid cycle. D) glycolysis. E) oxidative phosphorylation.
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A) reactions initiated in photosystem I.
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46) Reactions that consume CO2 take place in A) the light reactions of photosynthesis only. B) the Calvin cycle only. C) the citric acid cycle only. D) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle. E) both the Calvin cycle and the citric acid cycle
answer
B) the Calvin cycle only.
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47) Which of the following statements best represents the relationships between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle? A) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the Calvin cycle returns ADP, ℗i, and NADP+ to the light reactions. B) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the carbon fixation step of the Calvin cycle, and the Calvin cycle provides water and electrons to the light reactions. C) The light reactions supply the Calvin cycle with CO2 to produce sugars, and the Calvin cycle supplies the light reactions with sugars to produce ATP. D) The light reactions provide the Calvin cycle with oxygen for carbon fixation, and the Calvin cycle provides the light reactions with sugars to produce ATP.
answer
A) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the Calvin cycle returns ADP, ℗i, and NADP+ to the light reactions.
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48) Photorespiration occurs when rubisco combines RuBP with A) CO2. B) O2. C) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. D) citrate. E) NADPH.
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B) O2.
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49) Why are C4 plants able to photosynthesize with no apparent photorespiration? A) They do not participate in the Calvin cycle. B) They keep their stomata open most of the time in hot, dry climates, which allows for water loss to prevent photorespiration. C) They keep their stomata closed most of the time in hot, dry climates, which conserves water and oxygen to inhibit photorespiration. D) They do not use rubisco to fix CO2. E) They exclude oxygen from their tissues.
answer
D) They do not use rubisco to fix CO2.
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50) CAM plants keep stomata closed in daytime, thus reducing loss of water. They can do this because they A) fix CO2 into organic acids during the night when temperatures are cooler. B) fix CO2 into organic acids in the bundle-sheath cells, which do not rely on stomata. C) fix CO2 into organic acids in the mesophyll cells, which do not rely on stomata. D) fix CO2 into by combining it with RuBP in the Calvin cycle. E) obtain CO2 through their roots during the day.
answer
A) fix CO2 into organic acids during the night when temperatures are cooler.
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51) Photorespiration lowers the efficiency of photosynthesis by A) consuming excess carbon dioxide. B) reducing the amount of water consumed. C) reducing the amount of sugar produced. D) producing excess ATP, but less NADPH. E) inhibiting electron transfers from photosystem II.
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C) reducing the amount of sugar produced.
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52) Compared to C3 plants, C4 plants A) can continue to fix CO2 even at relatively low CO2 concentrations and high oxygen concentrations. B) have higher rates of photorespiration. C) do not use rubisco for carbon fixation. D) grow better under cool, moist conditions.
answer
A) can continue to fix CO2 even at relatively low CO2 concentrations and high oxygen concentrations.