Chapter 8

25 July 2022
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Which of the following help prevent changes in the acid-base balance of body fluid
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Proteins and mineral salts
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A persons absorption of calcium varies based on
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Age and vitamin D status
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Which of the following stabilizes bones and makes teeth resistant to decay
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Fluoride
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Which of the following is the most abundant mineral in the body
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Calcium
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Major roles of calcium in the body's fluids include all of the following EXCEPT
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Helps maintain normal blood glucose
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After 25 years of age, regardless of calcium intake, bones begin to lose density
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False
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Infants and children absorb about ___ percent of ingested calcium
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60
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For woman and men in the 10-50 y/o range, the calcium DRI is about
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1000
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The best way to obtain calcium you need is to
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Consume more milk, cheese, and yogurt
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The chief ion used to maintain the volume of fluid outside cells is
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Sodium
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Asian people may consume the equivalent of 30 to 40 grams of salt per day because of their use of soy sauce and MSG
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True
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A deficiency of sodium is not harmful
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False
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Adults in the United States consume an average of ___ milligrams per day of sodium
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3400
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The more processed a food
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The more sodium it contains, and the less potassium it contains
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Which of the following is the principal positively charged ion inside body cells
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Potassium
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Sulfate is adequate in a diet that contains sufficient
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Protein
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Over half of the body's magnesium is stored in the
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Bones
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The principal food source of chloride is
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Salt
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Which statement most accurately describes how body water is distributed in the body?
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From an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration
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Which statement best describes how the kidneys help regulate water balance in the body
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In response to insufficient water in the body, ADH signals the kidney to reabsorb more water
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A dehydrated athlete may have aberrations in all of the following physical functions EXCEPT
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Bone remodeling
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Derek is training for an upcoming body-building competition and is consuming a low-calorie, high-protein, high-fiber diet to prepare for the event. How does his diet affect fluid balance?
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Increased water retention in the intestines and excretion in the feces decreased body water, increased ketones are produced that require increased water for excretion, increased urea is produced that require increased water for excretion.
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Looking at minerals from a chemical perspective, which of the following statements is true
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A mineral is a inorganic compound, a mineral possess a chemical charge, minerals are found in the periodic table
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Which of the following diets has the most bioavailable mineral content
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An omnivorous diet with a cherry of beans, legumes and grains
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Vegetarians can be more prone to anemia, lower bone mass and resistance to infections b/c
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Minerals are in a less bioavailable form in their diet.
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Janice has been instructed to supplement with copper, iron and calcium as part of her treatment for iron deficiency anemia and osteopenia. Which of the following represents the best way to take these supplements
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Take iron and calcium separately
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A low-salt, low-potassium diet predisposes one to which of the following
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Aberrant nerve impulse transmission, blood pressure dysregulation, poor fluid balance
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Hypertension results from a diet
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High in sodium and chloride, but low in potassium
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When seemingly healthy individuals suffers from a heart attack, stroke, kidney disease or an early death, what might cause thus
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High blood pressure
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Which of the following individuals is at the LOWEST risk of osteoporosis
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A young, medium-build African American female runner
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Which of the following hormonal profiles is consistent with retaining greater amounts of calcium in the bone
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Decreased PTH, increased calcitonin
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Which of the following statements describes the relationship between the fu cations of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium
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Magnesium and prosperous are required for enzyme activity, and calcium is required for cell communication, MG and phosphorus are required for ATP production and stabilization, and calcium is involved in blood clotting, MG and calcium are involved in nerve and muscle function, and phosphorus is involved in acid-base balance
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Iron is part of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Given the function of these proteins in the blood and muscle, what symptoms would you expect to see deficient iron intake?
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Fatigue, decreased endurance, weakness
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Increased glutathione peroxides activity in an individual with Keshan disease predisposes one to a deficiency of
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Vitamin E
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What happens to the thyroid with insufficient iodine intake
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Continued stimulation of the thyroid gland leads to an enlarged gland
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Which of the following mineral deficiencies can result from low soul or water levels of the nutrient
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Iodine, selenium, fluoride
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Water is moved by ___, which forces water from the capillary blood vessels into the spaces between the cells of surrounding tissues
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Blood pressure
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Bernard is a football player in your university football team and he is eating high amounts of protein. Considering his high protein intake, how should he adjust his water intake and why?
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He needs to increase his daily water intake to help the kidneys excrete the protein waste products
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B/c water is an excellent solvent, the chemical reactions of metabolism that support life take place in water
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True
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Water intoxication is a condition that occurs when a person drinks enough water to significantly lower the concentration of __ in the blood
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Sodium
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Dried fruits are a good source of which of the following minerals
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Iron and potassium
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Phytic acid, tannins, and oxalates ___ the absorption of many minerals
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Decrease
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All of the following minerals are needed for functioning of antioxidant enzymes EXCEPT for
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Phosphorus
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When a nerve cell is at rest, potassium is concentrated __ the nerve cell and sodium is concentrated ___ the nerve cell
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Inside, outside
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When a nerve cell is stimulated, the cell membrane becomes __ permeable to __
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More sodium
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Outward symptoms of hypertension include which of the following
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There are no outward symptoms
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A healthy blood pressure is __ mm of mercury
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120/80
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Which of the following minerals are emphasized in the DASH diet
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Calcium and magnesium
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Postmenopausal nine loss occurred in women for about __ after the menstrual cycle stops
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5 years
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When the hormone calcitonin is activated, blood calcium levels will
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Decrease
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Which of the following minerals have a role in blood pressure regulation
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Calcium and magnesium
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__ enhances the bioavailability of non-heme iron
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Vitamin C
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Vegetarians have a specific RDA for iron due to their limited consumption of non heme iron
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False
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Because selenium is part of the enzyme glutathione-peroxides, it __ the body's need for vitamin E
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Decreased
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Refined grains are good source of zinc
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False