chapter 7 anthro

5 July 2024
4.5 (222 reviews)
38 test answers

Unlock all answers in this set

Unlock answers (34)
question
In recent times, many foraging groups have been exposed to the idea of food production but they have never adopted it. Why?
answer
Their own economies provide a perfectly adequate and nutritious diet, with a lot less work.
question
Despite differences due to environmental variation, all foraging economies have shared one essential feature:
answer
their reliance on available natural resources for their subsistence, rather than controlling the reproduction of plans and animals.
question
Yehudi Cohen's adaptive strategies
answer
suggest an association between the economy of societies and their social features.
question
Which of the following is not characteristic of band-level societies?
answer
permanent villages
question
Why do anthropologists question the idea that present-day foragers can be compared to Paleolithic foragers?
answer
Present-day foragers have been in contact with food-producing and industrialized societies for long periods of time and all live within nation states that inevitably affects their livelihood.
question
Which of the following is a characteristic of most foraging societies?
answer
egalitarianism
question
A horticultural system of cultivation is characterized by
answer
periodic cycles of cultivation and fallowing.
question
Which of the following statements about shifting cultivation is true?
answer
It requires cultivators to change plots of land, with fallowing durations varying in different societies.
question
Why do slash-and-burn cultivators stop using a plot of land every two to three years?
answer
They do not use fertilizer, thus their crops exhaust the soil quickly.
question
Which of the following statements about irrigation is not true?
answer
Irrigation is one of the defining characteristics of foraging societies.
question
Which of the following does not occur as you move along the cultivating continuum?
answer
societies become more egalitarian
question
What happens as one moves along the cultivating continuum?
answer
The use of land and labor intensifies.
question
Intensive agriculture
answer
has significant environmental effects such as deforestation, water pollution, and reduction of ecological diversity.
question
What is a mode of production?
answer
the way a society's social relations are organized to produce the labor necessary for generating the society's subsistence and energy needs
question
Unlike in industrial societies, where economic alienation is common, in nonindustrial societies
answer
the relations of production, distribution, and consumption are social relations with economic aspects.
question
How are nonindustrial economic systems "embedded" in society?
answer
The economic system cannot easily be separated from the other systems, such as kinship.
question
Economic relationships are characteristically embedded in other relationships, such as kinship, in all of the following kinds of societies, except
answer
states
question
Economic anthropologists have been concerned with two main questions, one focusing on systems of human behavior and the other on the individuals who participate in those systems. The first question is: How are production, distribution, and consumption organized in different societies? The second question is:
answer
What motivates people in different cultures to produce, distribute or exchange, and consume?
question
Which of the following statements about peasants is not true?
answer
They are not part of the world market.
question
Which of the following economic principles is generally dominant in industrial society?
answer
market principle
question
Which of the following kinds of exchange is characteristic among members of a family?
answer
generalized reciprocity
question
Which of the following statements about potlatching is not true?
answer
It is a case that proves that the profit-maximizing motive is a human universal.
question
Most contemporary foragers live in remote areas, completely cut off from contact with other modern, agricultural, and industrial communities.
answer
false
question
Foragers typically lived in mobile bands that dispersed in the dry season and aggregated in the rainy season.
answer
true
question
Horticulture refers to low-intensity farming using slash-and-burn techniques to clear land.
answer
True
question
Domesticated animals, more specifically their manure and pulling capabilities, are key components of horticulture.
answer
false
question
In order to intensify production, agriculturalists frequently build irrigation canals and terraces
answer
true
question
Although agriculture is much more productive per acre than horticulture, horticulture is much more reliable and dependable in the long run.
answer
false
question
Agriculturalists tend to live in permanent villages that are larger and closer to other settlements than the semipermanent settlements of horticulturalists.
answer
true
question
The high level of intensification and long-term dependability of horticulture paved the way for the emergence of large urban settlements and the first states.
answer
false
question
Pastoralists are specialized herders whose subsistence strategies are focused on domesticated animals.
answer
true
question
A mode of production is a way of organizing production, whereas the means of production include the factors of production like land, labor, and technology.
answer
true
question
In most foraging societies, private ownership of bounded land was almost nonexistent.
answer
true
question
Band- and tribal-level societies actively promote craft and task specialization.
answer
false
question
The market principle dominates economic activities in band-level foraging societies.
answer
false
question
With generalized reciprocity, the individuals participating in the exchange usually do not know the other person prior to the exchange.
answer
false
question
With balanced reciprocity the giver expects something in return equal to what was given.
answer
true
question
Potlatching is a form of competitive feasting that enables individuals to redistribute surplus materials while simultaneously increasing one's prestige.
answer
true