Wolf's Law is concerned with _________________.
a) the function of bone being dependent on shape
b) the diameter of the bone being dependent on the ratio of osteoblasts to osteoclasts
c) vertical growth of bones being dependent on age
d) the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it
The thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upone it
The resilience of bone is primarily due to which of the following?
a) presence of osteoblasts in the bone
b) amount of mineral salts in the bone
c) sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules
d) amount of mineral salt and protein in the bone
Sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules
Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?
b) parathyroid hormone
The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ________.
A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.
D) articular cartilage
The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.
a) perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
b) Volkmann's canals
c) a bony matrix with hyaline cartilage
d) the struts of bone known as spicules
perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
The structural unit of spongy is called __________.
a) lamellar bone
b) osseous lamellae
The term diploë refers to the ________.
A) double-layered nature of the connective tissue covering the bone
B) fact that most bones are formed of two types of bone tissue
C) internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
D) two types of marrow found within most bones
internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ________.
a) chondrocytes and osteocytes
b) marrow and osteons
c) osteoblasts and osteoclasts
d) cartilage and compact bone
osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood?
a) epiphyseal line
b) haversian system
d) epiphyseal plate
Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?
a) storage of minerals
b) production of blood cells (hematopoiesis)
What is absolutely required for bone growth or healing from a fracture?
a) dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D
Osteogenesis is the process of ________.
A) making a cartilage model of the fetal bone
B) bone destruction to liberate calcium
C) bone formation
D) making collagen fibers for calcified cartilage
Which of the following is the single most important stimulus for epiphyseal plate activity during infancy and childhood?
a) thyroid hormone
c) parathyroid hormone
d) growth hormone
Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood?
b) thyroid hormone
c) growth hormone
Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?
a) fibroblasts give rise to chondrocytes that differentiate and form cartilage
b) chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secret matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within
c) unspecialized cells from mesenchyme develop into chondrocytes, which divide and form cartilage
d) growth occurs in the lining of the long bones
chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secret matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within
The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.
A) closing of the epiphyseal plate
B) long bones reaching adult length and width
C) appositional growth
D) concentric growth
What is the structural unit of compact bone?
a) the osteon
b) spongy bone
c) lamellar bone
d) osseous matrix
The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?
a) irregular bone
b) compact bone
c) spongy bone
d) trabecular bone
Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?
a) stem cell
Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ________.
a) calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
b) vitamin D, phosphate, and chloride
c) sodium, calcium, and vitamin E
d) potassium, phosphate, and vitamin D
calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates and armlike bar of bone?
Osteomyelitis is ________.
A) partially due to insufficient dietary calcium
B) literally known as "soft bones"
C) due to pus-forming bacteria
D) caused by altered vitamin D metabolism
Due to pus-forming bacteria
What causes osteoporosis?
a) abnormal PTH receptors
b) poor posture
c) Osteoclasts out-pace osteoblasts due to low hormone production of the ovaries
d) heritage such as African or Mediterranean
Osteoclasts out-pace osteoblasts due to low hormone production of the ovaries.
Ossification of the ends of long bones ________.
A) is a characteristic of intramembranous bone formation
B) involves medullary cavity formation
C) is produced by secondary ossification centers
D) takes twice as long as diaphysis
is produced by secondary ossification centers
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