Chapter 6

27 August 2022
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Describe the system of checks and balances in the Constitution.
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The system of checks and balances was established so that each branch of government would not over power each other. The three branches of government are the legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature includes the House of Representatives and the Senate (Congress). ´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐The executive branch includes the President. The Judiciary includes the Supreme Court and is the law of the land. The legislative branch can override vetoes and impeach a president over the executive branch. The executive branch can veto certain acts of congress. Each branch has special rights so that they remain in balance with one another, thus the system of checks and balances.
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What major compromises were made at the Constitutional Convention, and what issues did they settle? What issues remained unsettled?
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The Constitutional Convention was held in order to amend to Articles of Confederation. They ended up making an entirely new document, which everyone agreed on. A large issue that was settled was about representation. To settle this, the Senate and House of Representatives were born. The Senate had equal representation by the states and the House had equal representation by the population. The issues of slavery, women's rights, immigration, and naturalization were left unsettled.
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Washington's farewell address:
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opposed permanent alliances.
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True or False? The New Jersey Plan proposed keeping unicameral legislature with equal representation for each state.
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True
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Just before he left office, Adams:
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cemented Federalism within the judiciary.
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One key element of Hamilton's program to encourage manufacturing was his proposal for:
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high protective tariffs.
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Madison decided to support Hamilton's debt proposals in return for an agreement to:
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relocate the nation capital southward.
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True or False? By raising taxes in the early 1780s, the Confederation was able to reduce the national debt.
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False
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The first of these states to ratify the Constitution was:
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Delaware
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Shays's Rebellion broke out in:
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Massachusetts.
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The emergence of political parties:
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reflected basic philosophical differences between Jefferson and Hamilton.
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What was George Washington's greatest achievement as president? What was his worst failure? Overall, was his administration a success for the nation? Was it a success for the Federalists?
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´╗┐´╗┐George Washington's greatest achievement as president was the signing of Jay's treaty. Washington sent John Jay to London in 1794 to settle issues between America and England. Jay made several negotiations with the British to avoid war. Several Americans were displeased with the treaty. Washington admitted that it had its faults, but it was necessary to avoid war. Washington's biggest failure during his presidency was the fact that he often sided with Alexander Hamilton. Many of his ideas were brought to life because of this favoritism. As the president, Washington should have been fair to all members of his cabinet. ´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐Overall his presidency was a success for America and the Federalists as he was often sympathetic to their cause even thought he was officially non-partisan.
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Pinckney's Treaty resulted in:
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American trade access to Spanish New Orleans.
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True or False? Delegates to the Constitutional Convention sharply debated whether to establish a monarchy or a republic.
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False
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The delegates who met at the Constitutional Convention:
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included many participants in the Revolution.
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The Constitution addressed slavery by:
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counting slaves as three-fifths of a person for the purposes of apportionment.
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The Constitutional Convention's most gifted political philosopher and the man who emerged as its central figure was:
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James Madison.
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Opposition to Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey was strongest among:
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frontier farmers.
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The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions argued that:
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states could nullify federal laws.
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James Madison
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arrived in Philadelphia having spent months preparing for the Constitutional Convention
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Benjamin Franklin
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the oldest member of the Constitutional Convention
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Alexander Hamilton
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briefly represented New York at the Constitutional Convention
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Patrick Henry
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claimed to "smell a rat" at the Constitutional Convention
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Thomas Jefferson
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drafted the Land Ordinance of 1785
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John Marshall
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defined the United States through his tenure as chief justice of the Supreme Court
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Thomas Pinckney
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negotiated the extremely popular treaty with Spain
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Anthony Wayne
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led American troops at the Battle of Fallen Timbers
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George Washington
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issued a neutrality proclamation in 1793 in response to pressure to enter European conflicts
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Edmond Genet
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diplomat who sought to undermine American policy relative to the French Revolution
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Edmond Genet:
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encouraged Americans to attack English and Spanish vessels.
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Describe the presidency of John Adams. Be sure to include both the domestic and foreign issues that confronted his administration and how he succeeded in dealing with these issues.
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The French were upset with Jay's Treaty. Adams tried to ease tensions by sending three American diplomats to France to create some kind of settlement. Upon arrival, the diplomats were taken by the French. This became known as the XYZ Affair when America refused to pay France for the return of the diplomats. This created even more hostility between France and America. The two countries were in an unofficial naval war´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐ in the Caribbean Sea. This war caused conflict in Americans on whether to officially declare war. Some Americans took the side of France. In effort to make peace with France, Adams sent more diplomats to negotiate with Napoleon Bonaparte. The Americans received the best deal that they could get from the Convention of 1800.
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In regard to religion, the Constitution:
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prevents Congress from establishing an official religion.
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True or False? George Washington recognized Shays's Rebellion as an indicator of the need for a stronger form of government.
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True
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According to the Constitution, the president has the authority to do all of the following, EXCEPT:
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resign and choose his successor.
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In early 1789, the new Congress gathered in the national capital, which was:
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New York City.
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Jay's Treaty:
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infuriated Republicans for its concessions to the British.
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True or False? Under the Constitution, each slave would count as one person for purposes of representation, but only as half a person for taxation.
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False
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Alexander Hamilton's basic vision of America was to make it:
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a vibrant capitalist power.
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The 640-acre sections created by the Land Ordinance of 1785:
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were part of six-square-mile townships.
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On the question of women's rights, the proposed Constitution:
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said nothing.
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Discuss the conflict between Federalists and anti-Federalists in the writing and ratification of the Constitution.
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Federalists were the people who were in favor of the Constitution. Anti-Federalists did not agree with it. The Federalists had some advantages in the fight. They had an actual Constitution to show to the people. Anti-Federalists only criticized ideas. They feared that a new form of government would lead to corruption. The only solution that they had was the idea of a bill of rights to ensure the rights of the people. The Federalists were more familiar with the issues in the Constitution and were far more organized in their effort. ´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐
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The Bank of the United States:
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would provide a stable national currency.
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When Britain and France went to war in 1793, the United States:
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expressed neutrality, warning Americans not to aid either side.
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True or False? George Washington was appointed president without any kind of election process.
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False
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After Shays's Rebellion:
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there were numerous calls promoting a stronger central government.
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True or False? The XYZ affair came about as part of the so-called Quasi War with France that Adams inherited as president.
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True
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Examine the importance of the Bill of Rights regarding the establishment of trust and law between the new nation and its citizens.
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The Bill of Rights was introduced in order to protect the rights of Americans from the government. James Madison presented the idea to Congress. It was important to let Americans know that they would always have rights that no one else could take away from them. Religious freedom ´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐prevented groups like the Puritans from forcing their people into a certain religion. The Bill of Rights let citizens know that they did have their freedoms in the new law of the land.
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Shays's Rebellion:
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was repressed by state militia.
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Daniel Boone's route into Kentucky was the:
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Wilderness Road.
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Under the Articles of Confederation, western lands would be:
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owned by the national government.
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Who among the following was an anti-Federalist?
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George Mason
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In his inaugural address, President Washington emphasized:
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national unity.
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The Federalist argued that:
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the size and diversity of the large new country would make it impossible for any one faction to control the government.
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Madison's Virginia Plan:
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would create a two-house Congress.
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The Great Compromise:
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settled the question of congressional representation.
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Jefferson's election in 1800:
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had to be settled by the House of Representatives
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The Founding Fathers viewed the most "democratic" branch of the government as the:
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House of Representatives.
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True or False? Conflicts with Britain and France in the 1790s created a spirit of national unity.
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False
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True or False? The Constitution mentioned the word "slave" (or "slavery") eighteen times.
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False
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Shays's Rebellion was led by:
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indebted farmers.
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The Constitutional Convention, which assembled in May 1787, was supposed to:
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revise the Articles of Confederation.
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Under President Adams, a war between the United States and France:
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was an undeclared naval conflict.
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The phrase "critical period" refers to:
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America under the Articles of Confederation.
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The Federalist essays were written by:
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Hamilton, Madison, and Jay.
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The Constitution was to be considered ratified as soon as it had been approved by:
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nine of the states.
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True or False? On the issue of the assumption of state debts, James Madison agreed with Alexander Hamilton.
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False
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True or False? The Supreme Court has final interpretive power over the Constitution.
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True
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The Bill of Rights did all of the following, EXCEPT:
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settle all questions about federal versus state authority.
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The Northwest Ordinance of 1787:
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banned slavery in the Northwest.
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True or False? The Bill of Rights originally consisted of twelve amendments to the Constitution.
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True
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One serious economic problem under the Articles of Confederation was:
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a shortage of "hard money."
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In his debate with Jefferson over the national bank's constitutionality, Hamilton:
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used the doctrine of implied powers.
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Assess Alexander Hamilton's contributions to establishing national economic policy.
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Alexander Hamilton was inspired by Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, and decided to manage America's finances. He understood the difficulty of managing the government's money and he had great expectations for America to become a capitalist nation. To repay America's bills, Hamilton helped to impose taxes on people, businesses, and imported goods. The government also borrowed money by the selling bonds to investors. The printing of money also helped paying off the country's debt´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐´╗┐. Hamilton's biggest contribution to establishing national economic policy was introducing a national bank. He modeled it off of the Bank of England. People opposed the idea at first, but it was eventually passed.
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True or False? According to Alexander Hamilton, the United States needed a national bank to provide a stable currency and act as an engine of prosperity.
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True
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After the Revolutionary War, American trade with Britain:
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resumed, but without access to the West Indies.
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True or False? The partisan divisions of the 1790s ended the friendship of Adams and Jefferson for an extended period.
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True
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The Judiciary Act of 1801:
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was the legacy of the Federalists as they left office.
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Which of the following was NOT part of the Northwest Ordinance?
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Religious freedom was guaranteed in a "bill of rights."
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Which of the following gave the Confederation government the most trouble?
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finances
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True or False? Anti-Federalists favored a decentralized federal system of government.
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True
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The Sedition Act was aimed primarily at:
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Republican newspaper editors.
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The Federalist Number 10 explains how a republic can:
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be successful in a large, diverse society.