Chapter 5 Living With Art

24 August 2022
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1. Explain the following terms: unity and variety, balance, emphasis and subordination, proportion and scale, and rhythm. What is the relationship between the elements of art and the principles of design?
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Unity: is a sense of oneness, of things belonging together and making up coherent whole. Variety: difference that provides interest Balance: when visual weight is equally distributed to either side of a felt or implied center of gravity, we feel the composition is balanced. also symmetrical balance: line that divides composition in half Emphasis: Subordination: Proportion: size relationships between parts of a whole, or between two or more items perceived as a unit also the size relationship between an object as its surroundings Scale: size in relation to some normal or constant Rhythm: is based on reputation and its a basic part of the world we find ourselves in.
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2. Define the terms "unity" and "variety" as they relate to the principles of design in visual art. Describe the spectrum on which unity and variety exist in art. What point do most artists try to find on the spectrum?
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unity : sense of oneness variety: difference that provides interest try to find the point in which there is sufficient visual unity enliven by sufficient variety.
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3. How was unity demonstrated in Henri Matisse's Memory of Oceania, 1953 and Jackson Pollock's Shimmering Substance, 1946? Was this visual unity or conceptual unity? Explain.
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colors are limited to six plus black and white, the shapes (rectangles, simples curves, and waves)
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4. How does conceptual unity predominate in Joseph Cornell's The Hotel Eden, 1945 and Annette Messager's Mes Voeux, 1989?
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conceptual unity
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5. Define "Symmetrical balance". Where is the implied center of gravity in a symmetrically balanced two dimensional work? Explain the central placement of the deer skull in Georgia O'Keeffe's Deer Skull with Pedernal, 1936. What type of balance is shown in the Thirteen-Deity Jnanadakini Mandala, 1417-47? What does the word "mandala" actually mean? Why does much of the world's religious art use symmetrical balance?
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symmetrical balance forms a composition mirror each other across a central axis, an imaginary straight line that dived the composition in half. The skull itself is perfectly symmetrical and Okeefee sets it directly on the vertical axis. youses symmetrical balance , mandala means circle, we are living in a universe that makes sense, even if it is logical and order are hidden from us during our brief lifetime.
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6. Define the term "asymmetrical balance". What is another term for asymmetrical balance? Our textbook describes six general precepts regarding asymmetrical balance. Identify and explain these precepts. In two-dimensional work with asymmetrical balance, how is the appearance of balance usually achieved?
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asymetrical balance has to sides that do not match. 1. Large form is visually heavier than a smaller form 2. a dark-value form is visually heavier that a smooth form of the same size 3. A textured form is visually heavier than a smooth form of the same size 4. A complex form is visually heavier than a simple form of the same size 5. 2 or more small forms can balance a larger on e 6. a smaller dark form can balance a larger light one. composition is balanced when it looks balanced.
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7. Briefly explain each of these approaches as they relate to different viewpoints regarding Edouard Manet's A Bar at the Folies-Bergรจre, 1881-82: formalism, iconography, biographical, psychoanalytical, Marxism, and Feminism
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formalism: climate any clear story it was telling and to flatten space it was depicting. Iconography: contains traditional elements of vanitas , with the reflected man representing death Biographical: explores links between artists life and work. He was ill when he painted the bar, reflecting he was no longer able to go to places and he missed it Psychoanalytical: mirror stage of human development Marxism: looking at economic status. barmaid is a member of the working class Feminism: the cultures ideas of male and females are in play.
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8. Explain at least four ways Henry Ossawa Tanner created emphasis in The Banjo Lesson, 1893.
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used size and placement to emphasize the figures of the old man and the young boy. strongly contrasting values of dark skin against a pale background add further emphasis. tanner uses directional lines of sight to create a focal point on the circular body of the banjo and the boys hand on it again roles of contrast plays a role, for the light form of the banjo is set amid darker values, and the boys hand contrasts dark against light.
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9. Explain how Paul Cezanne and Francisco de Goya used similar color schemes, despite very different subject matter, to create a dramatic focal area against a background of earth tones and black. How did this subordinate the background for both artists?
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they use bright red and oranges against a dark neutral background.
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10. Explain how Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Brugger added shock value to "Plantoir," 2001. What principle of design did they radically shift?
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they radically shift "scale"
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11. How did Belgian Surrealist painter Renรจ Magritte use scale in his Delusions of Grandeur II, 1948?
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he shifted scale by telescoping a woman with each each section rising out of the one before and continuing on a smaller scale.
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12. Our author states that "The ancient Egyptians developed a standard set of proportions used to create images of the 'correct' or 'perfect' human form..." as have many other cultures. What did the ancient Egyptians use to create this set of proportions
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relied on a squared grid to govern the proportions of their figures.
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13. What term describes the use of scale to indicate relative importance? How is this demonstrated in A royal altar to the hand (ikegobo), 18th century Benin?
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the use of scale to indicate relative importance is called hierarchical scale. he is in larger scale than the other people.
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14. Identify the famous Roman architect who associated the perfect male form with the perfect geometry of the circle and the square.
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Leonardo de vinci
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15. Explain the proportion known as the "golden section". What culture is credited with discovering the golden section? How did they apply this in their culture? Which 20th century architect related the golden section to human proportions? What tool did he develop to help him accomplish this?
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ancient greeks, Le-Corbusier, the Modulor,
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16. Explain the term "rhythm" as it relates to the principles of design. How can any of the visual elements take on a rhythm within a work?
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rhythm is based in repetition and its a basic part of the world we find ourselves in. through repetition any of the visual elements can take on a rhythm within a work.
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17. Explain how Paul Klee's Landscape with Yellow Birds, 1923 and Kaiho Yusho's Fish Nets Drying in the Sun, 17th century, share a strong sense of rhythm
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rhythm of the bulging tapered silvery forms which sway this way and that as they repeat across the image. then there is a constellation of alert little birds which hold the composition togther by forming an implied oval as our eyes follow them round the landscape.
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18. In what ways does Picasso's Girl Before a Mirror, 1932 explore the traditional theme of "vanitas", which we discussed in a previous chapter? Were you surprised that Picasso's Girl Before a Mirror shared a common theme with Hans Baldung Grien's The Three Ages of Woman, and Death, 1510 and Titian's Venus with a Mirror, 1555? Why or why not?
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because she looking in the mirror her reflection symbolizes death. no because those are common themes