Chapter 5

25 July 2022
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A relatively permanent change in behavior or thinking due to experience is called:
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learning.
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Ivan Pavlov is associated with the study of classical conditioning. This means that he studied how:
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organisms associate two different stimuli.
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The text states that "[Pavlov's] assistant's footsteps seemed to act like a trigger for the dog to start salivating." In the terminology of classical conditioning, the footsteps and bell became a(n) _____ stimulus.
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conditioned
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Before classical conditioning:
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an unconditioned stimulus elicits an unconditioned response.
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In the final phase of the classical conditioning process:
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a conditioned stimulus elicits a conditioned response.
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In Pavlov's study, the US was _____; the neutral stimulus was _____; and, finally, the CS was ____.
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meat; the bell; the bell
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Tim loves dill pickles. Now, the sight of a jar on the supermarket shelf makes his mouth water. In the terminology of classical conditioning, the sight of the jar is a(n) ____.
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CS
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Often, a conditioned response may be elicited not only by the original CS, but by a similar one as well. This is known as stimulus:
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generalization.
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June's cat runs to the kitchen at the sound of the electric can opener, but not when a blender is used. June's cat is demonstrating stimulus:
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discrimination.
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_____ occurs when an extinguished CR reappears after a period of rest.
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Spontaneous recovery
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Carlotta consumed some poorly stored sushi on a hot day and became violently ill. Now Carlotta can't stand the sight of sushi. She has developed a:
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conditioned taste aversion.
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_____ conditioning is a type of learning in which organisms associate actions with consequences.
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Operant
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"Responses that lead to pleasurable consequences are more likely to be repeated." This is the law of:
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effect.
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The process of teaching complex behavior by reinforcing ever closer approximations of the desired behavior is called:
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shaping.
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What is a primary reinforcer?
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A reinforcer that satisfies a biological need, such as food, water, physical contact; innate reinforcer.
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What is a secondary reinforcer?
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Reinforcers that do not satisfy biological needs but often gain power through their association with primary reinforcers.
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Money is to Food as ___________ is to ________________ reinforcers.
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secondary; primary
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Charissa is a banquet server at a large hotel. She is paid every second Friday. Charissa is reinforced for working on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
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fixed-interval
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Operant conditioning applies to _____ behavior and involves associations between ______.
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voluntary; behavior and consequences
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Bandura, Ross, and Ross' (1961) groundbreaking "Bobo doll" research: name the independent (IV) and dependent variables(DV)
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the model's peaceful or aggressive behavior (IV); the aggressiveness of the child's behavior toward's the doll.
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Mental maps are created through a process called:
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latent learning
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What is a fixed interval?
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A schedule in which the reinforcer comes after a pre-established interval of time; the behavior is only reinforced after the given interval is over.
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What is a fixed ratio schedule?
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A schedule in which the subject must exhibit a predetermined number of desired behaviors before a reinforcer is given.
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What is a variable ratio?
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A schedule in which the subject must exhibit a predetermined number of desired behaviors before a reinforcer is given.
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What is a variable interval?
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A schedule in which the reinforcer comes after an interval of time, but the length of the interval changes from trial to trial.