Chapter 21 EMT

25 July 2022
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question
How do poisons typically act to harm the body? a. By interfering with normal neurologic function b. By changing the normal metabolism of cells or by destroying them c. By causing burns and damage to either external or internal organs d. By causing a slowing of nearly all bodily functions
answer
b. By changing the normal metabolism of cells or by destroying them
question
If the victim of a toxicologic emergency vomits, an EMT should _________. a. use appropriate personal protective equipment and examine the vomitus for pill fragments or other clues for patient care. b. have the patient enclose the vomitus in a container and take it to the emergency department. c. safely dispose of the vomitus as soon as possible and decontaminate the vehicle as necessary. d. not approach the vomitus.
answer
a. use appropriate personal protective equipment and examine the vomitus for pill fragments or other clues for patient care.
question
Of the four avenues of poisoning, generally ___________ is the most worrisome in terms of treatment to the EMS provider. a. inhalation b. absorption c. ingestion d. injection
answer
d. injection
question
Victims of inhaled poisoning will require which of the following? a. Ventilation with a bag-valve mask b. An oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal device to maintain an airway c. Suctioning to clear the airway d. Transport to an emergency department for evaluation
answer
d. Transport to an emergency department for evaluation
question
The recommended treatment for absorbed or contact poisons includes _________. a. safely removing or diluting the poisonous substance b. neutralizing the poisonous substance with a chemical c. transporting the patient to the emergency department with the poisonous substance in place d. collecting and transporting the poisonous substance to the emergency department for identification
answer
a. safely removing or diluting the poisonous substance
question
Most poisonings occur via the __________ route. a. ingestion b. injection c. inhalation d. absorption
answer
a. ingestion
question
Heroin is an example of a(n): a. opioid. b. hypnotic. c. cholinergic d. sympathomimetic.
answer
a. opioid.
question
Hypotension, hypoventilation, and pinpoint pupils would be expected following an overdose of: a. ecstasy. b. oxycodone (Percocet). c. amphetamine sulfate (Benzedrine). d. crack cocaine.
answer
b. oxycodone (Percocet).
question
Which of the following questions would be LEAST pertinent during the initial questioning of a patient who ingested a substance? a. How much of the substance was taken? b. How long ago was the substance taken? c. What type of substance was taken? d. Why was the substance ingested?
answer
d. Why was the substance ingested?
question
Activated charcoal is given to patients who have ingested certain substances because it: a. induces vomiting and empties b. binds to the substance and prevents absorption. c. decreases absorption of poisons into the lungs. d. is a direct antidote for many toxic substances.
answer
b. binds to the substance and prevents absorption.
question
As you enter the residence of a patient who has possibly overdosed, you should: a. be alert for personal hazards. b. look for drug paraphernalia. c. observe the scene for drug bottles. d. quickly gain access to the patient.
answer
a. be alert for personal hazards.
question
You receive a call to a residence where a man found his wife unresponsive on the couch. The patient's respiratory rate is 8 breaths/min, her breathing is shallow, her heart rate is 40 beats/min, and her pulse is weak. The husband hands you an empty bottle of hydrocodone (Vicodin), which was refilled the day before. You should: a. ventilate her with a BVM. b. contact the poison control center. c. perform a rapid head-to-toe exam. d. apply oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask.
answer
a. ventilate her with a BVM.
question
When caring for a known alcoholic patient with severe trauma to the chest and abdomen, you should be concerned that: a. delirium tremens (DTs) are commonly induced by physical trauma and can lead to life-threatening seizures. b. internal bleeding may be profuse because prolonged alcohol use may impair the blood's ability to clot. c. long bone fractures are likely because chronic alcohol consumption weakens the structure of the bones. d. signs and symptoms of shock may be masked by the stimulant effects produced by alcohol.
answer
b. internal bleeding may be profuse because prolonged alcohol use may impair the blood's ability to clot.
question
You and your paramedic partner are caring for a patient who ingested codeine, acetaminophen (Tylenol), and hydrocodone (Vicodin). The patient is unresponsive, his breathing is slow and shallow, and his pulse is slow and weak. Treatment for this patient should include: a. assisted ventilation and naloxone (Narcan). b. high-flow oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask. c. assisted ventilation and flumazenil (Romazicon). d. oxygen via a nasal cannula and atropine sulfate.
answer
a. assisted ventilation and naloxone (Narcan).
question
Which of the following statements regarding the Salmonella bacterium is correct? a. Refrigeration of food will prevent salmonellosis. b. Symptoms of salmonellosis appear within 12 hours. c. The Salmonella bacterium produces toxins that cause food poisoning. d. The Salmonella bacterium itself causes food poisoning.
answer
d. The Salmonella bacterium itself causes food poisoning.
question
Which of the following sets of vital signs would the EMT MOST likely encounter in a patient with acute cocaine overdose? a. BP, 60/40 mm Hg; pulse, 140 beats/min b. BP, 190/90 mm Hg; pulse, 40 beats/min c. BP, 200/100 mm Hg; pulse, 150 beats/min d. BP, 180/100 mm Hg; pulse, 50 beats/min
answer
c. BP, 200/100 mm Hg; pulse, 150 beats/min
question
An overdose of acetaminophen, the active ingredient in Tylenol, will MOST likely cause: a. liver failure. b. gastric ulcers. c. kidney failure. d. CNS depression.
answer
a. liver failure.
question
In an apparent suicide attempt, a 19-year-old female ingested a full bottle of amitriptyline (Elavil). At present, she is conscious and alert and states that she swallowed the pills approximately 30 minutes earlier. Her blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg, her pulse is 140 beats/min and irregular, and her respirations are 22 breaths/min with adequate depth. When transporting this patient, you should be MOST alert for: a. acute respiratory depression. b. a sudden outburst of violence. c. an increase in her blood pressure. d. seizures and cardiac arrhythmias.
answer
d. seizures and cardiac arrhythmias.
question
A 49-year-old male presents with confusion, sweating, and visual hallucinations. The patient's wife tells you that he is a heavy drinker and she thinks he had a seizure shortly before your arrival. This patient is MOST likely experiencing: a. acute hypovolemia. b. alcohol intoxication. c. acute schizophrenia. d. delirium tremens
answer
d. delirium tremens
question
A person who routinely misuses a substance and requires increasing amounts to achieve the same effect is experiencing: a. addiction. b. dependence. c. withdrawal. d. tolerance.
answer
d. tolerance.