Chapter 14 Practice Questions

4 September 2022
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question
What is the genotype of the parent with orange eyes and white skin? (Note: orange eyes are recessive.)
What is the genotype of the parent with orange eyes and white skin? (Note: orange eyes are recessive.)
answer
bbgg
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Black eyes are dominant to orange eyes, and green skin is dominant to white skin. Sam, a MendAlien with black eyes and green skin, has a parent with orange eyes and white skin. Carole is a MendAlien with orange eyes and white skin. If Sam and Carole were to mate, the predicted phenotypic ratio of their offspring would be _____.
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1 black eyes, green skin : 1 black eyes, white skin : 1 orange eyes, green skin : 1 orange eyes, white skin
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In order to determine the genotype of a MendAlien with black eyes and green skin, you would cross this individual with a(n) _____ individual.
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bbgg
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A cross between an individual with orange eyes and green skin and an individual with black eyes and white skin is an example of a _____ cross.
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dihybrid
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A phenotypic ratio of 9:3:3:1 in the offspring of a cross indicates that _____.
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both parents are heterozygous for both genes
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The observed distribution of alleles into gametes is an illustration of _____.
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Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment
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An individual heterozygous for eye color, skin color, and number of eyes mates with an individual who is homozygous recessive for all three characters; what would be the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? [Hint: B = black eyes, b = orange eyes; G = green skin, g = white skin; C = two eyes, c = one eye]
answer
1 black eyes, green skin, two eyes : 1 black eyes, green skin, one eye : 1 black eyes, white skin, two eyes : 1 black eyes, white skin, one eye : 1 orange eyes, green skin, two eyes : 1 orange eyes, green skin, one eye : 1 orange eyes, white skin, two eyes : 1 orange eyes, white skin, one eye
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A BbGg x bbgg cross yields a phenotypic ratio of approximately 5 black eyes, green skin : 5 orange eyes, white skin : 1 black eyes, white skin : 1 orange eyes, green skin. Which of the following best explains these results?
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Mendel's law of independent assortment is being violated.
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In the following cross the genotype of the female parent is BbGg. What is the genotype of the male parent? [Hint: B = black eyes, b = orange eyes, G = green skin, g = white skin]
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BBGg
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In a situation in which genes assort independently, what is the ratio of the gametes produced by an AaBB individual?
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1 AB : 1 aB
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What is the difference between heterozygous and homozygous individuals?
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All of the gametes from a homozygote carry the same version of the gene while those of a heterozygote will differ.
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When constructing a Punnett square, the symbols on the outside of the boxes represent _______, while those inside the boxes represent _______.
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gametes, progeny
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True or false? The same phenotype can be produced by more than one genotype.
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True
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True or false? In diploid organisms, a dominant phenotype will only be expressed if the individual is homozygous dominant for that trait
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False
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If an organism with the genotype AaBb produces gametes, what proportion of the gametes would be Bb?
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None
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Two mice are heterozygous for albinism (Aa) . The dominant allele (A) codes for normal pigmentation, and the recessive allele (a) codes for no pigmentation. What percentage of their offspring would have an albino phenotype?
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25
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A tall, purple-flowered pea plant (TtPp) is allowed to self-pollinate. (The recessive alleles code for short plants and white flowers.) The phenotypic ratio of the resulting offspring is 9:3:3:1. What is the genotype of the plant whose phenotype appeared once out of every 16 offspring (the "1" in the 9:3:3:1 ratio)?
answer
ttpp
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What do we mean when we use the terms monohybrid cross and dihybrid cross?
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A dihybrid cross involves organisms that are heterozygous for two characters that are being studied, and a monohybrid cross involves organisms that are heterozygous for only one character being studied.
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How many unique gametes could be produced through independent assortment by an individual with the genotype AaBbCCDdEE?
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8
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Mendel continued some of his experiments into the F2 or F3 generation to _____.
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observe whether or not a recessive trait would reappear
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A sexually reproducing animal has two unlinked genes, one for head shape (H) and one for tail length (T). Its genotype is HhTt. Which of the following genotypes is possible in a gamete from this organism?
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HT
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The fact that all seven of the pea plant traits studied by Mendel obeyed the principle of independent assortment most probably indicates which of the following?
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All of the genes controlling the traits behaved as if they were on different chromosomes.
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Mendel's second law of independent assortment has its basis in which of the following events of meiosis I?
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arrangement of chromosome pairs at the equator
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In a particular plant, leaf color is controlled by gene locus D. Plants with at least one allele D have dark green leaves, and plants with the homozygous recessive dd genotype have light green leaves. A true-breeding, dark-leaved plant is crossed with a light-leaved one, and the F1 offspring is allowed to self-pollinate. The predicted outcome of the F2 is diagrammed in the Punnett square shown in the figure, where 1, 2, 3, and 4 represent the genotypes corresponding to each box within the square. Which of the boxes marked 1-4 correspond to plants with dark leaves?
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1, 2, and 3
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In a particular plant, leaf color is controlled by gene locus D. Plants with at least one allele D have dark green leaves, and plants with the homozygous recessive dd genotype have light green leaves. A true-breeding, dark-leaved plant is crossed with a light-leaved one, and the F1 offspring is allowed to self-pollinate. The predicted outcome of the F2 is diagrammed in the Punnett square shown in the figure, where 1, 2, 3, and 4 represent the genotypes corresponding to each box within the square. Which of the boxes marked 1-4 correspond to plants that will be true-breeding?
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1 and 4 only
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Why did the F1 offspring of Mendel's classic pea cross always look like one of the two parental varieties?
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One allele was dominant.
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Albinism is an autosomal (not sex-linked) recessive trait. A man and woman are both of normal pigmentation, but both have one parent who is albino (without melanin pigmentation). What is the probability that their first child will be an albino?
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1/4
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A black guinea pig crossed with an albino guinea pig produced twelve black offspring. When the albino was crossed with a second black animal, six blacks and six albinos were obtained. What is the best explanation for this genetic situation?
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Albino is recessive; black is dominant.
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When Mendel crossed yellow-seeded and green-seeded pea plants, all the offspring were yellow seeded. When he took these F1 yellow-seeded plants and crossed them to green-seeded plants, what genotypic ratio was expected?
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1:1
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Given the parents AABBCc Ɨ AabbCc, assume simple dominance for each trait and independent assortment. What proportion of the progeny will be expected to phenotypically resemble the first parent with genotype AABBCc?
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3/4
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Which of the following calculations require that you utilize the addition rule?
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Calculate the probability of a child having either sickle-cell anemia or cystic fibrosis if parents are each heterozygous for both.
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A man has extra digits (six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot). His wife and their daughter have a normal number of digits. Having extra digits is a dominant trait. The couple's second child has extra digits. What is the probability that their next (third) child will have extra digits?
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1/2
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Assuming independent assortment for all gene pairs, what is the probability that the following parents, AABbCc Ɨ AaBbCc, will produce an AaBbCc offspring?
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1/8
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In cattle, roan coat color (mixed red and white hairs) occurs in the heterozygous (Rr) offspring of red (RR) and white (rr) homozygotes. Which of the following crosses would produce offspring in the ratio of 1 red:2 roan:1 white?
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roan Ɨ roan
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Which of the following is an example of polygenic inheritance?
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skin pigmentation in humans
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Which of the following provides an example of epistasis?
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In rabbits and many other mammals, one genotype (ee) prevents any fur color from developing.
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Radish flowers may be red, purple, or white. A cross between a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant yields all-purple offspring. The flower color trait in radishes is an example of which of the following?
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incomplete dominance
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Gene S controls the sharpness of spines in a type of cactus. Cactuses with the dominant allele, S, have sharp spines, whereas homozygous recessive ss cactuses have dull spines. At the same time, a second gene, N, determines whether or not cactuses have spines. Homozygous recessive nn cactuses have no spines at all. The relationship between genes S and N is an example of _____.
answer
epistasis
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Gene S controls the sharpness of spines in a type of cactus. Cactuses with the dominant allele, S, have sharp spines, whereas homozygous recessive ss cactuses have dull spines. At the same time, a second gene, N, determines whether or not cactuses have spines. Homozygous recessive nn cactuses have no spines at all. If doubly heterozygous SsNn cactuses were allowed to self-pollinate, the F2 would segregate in which of the following ratios?
answer
9 sharp-spined:3 dull-spined:4 spineless
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Feather color in budgies is determined by two different genes, Y and B, one for pigment on the outside and one for the inside of the feather. YYBB, YyBB, or YYBb is green; yyBB or yyBb is blue; YYbb or Yybb is yellow; and yybb is white. Two blue budgies were crossed. Over the years, they produced twenty-two offspring, five of which were white. What are the most likely genotypes for the two blue budgies?
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yyBb and yyBb
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A gene for the MN blood group has codominant alleles M and N. If both children are of blood type M, which of the following is possible?
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Each parent is either M or MN.
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In rabbits, the homozygous CC is normal, Cc results in deformed legs, and cc results in very short legs. The genotype BB produces black fur, Bb brown fur, and bb white fur. If a cross is made between brown rabbits with deformed legs and white rabbits with deformed legs, what percentage of the offspring would be expected to have deformed legs and white fur?
answer
25%
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An obstetrician knows that one of her patients is a pregnant woman whose fetus is at risk for a serious disorder that is detectable biochemically in fetal cells. The obstetrician would most reasonably offer which of the following procedures to her patient?
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amniocentesis or CVS
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Hutchinson-Gilford progeria is an exceedingly rare human genetic disorder in which there is very early senility and death, usually from coronary artery disease, at an average age of 13 years. Patients, who look very old even as children, do not live to reproduce. Which of the following represents the most likely assumption?
answer
The disorder may be due to mutation in a single protein-coding gene.
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The following question refer to the pedigree chart in the figure below for a family, some of whose members exhibit the dominant trait, W. Affected individuals are indicated by a dark square or circle. What is the genotype of individual II-5?
answer
ww